But parts of India had come under British control and soon Indian opium was going to China to pay for tea. When the Chinese wanted to ban opium imports, the British launched the Opium Wars. After 1840, China had to give way to western powers.Asia, especially Iran, India and China, had been the dominant rich economies till 1750. After the naval adventures of Columbus and Vasco da Gama, the Europeans first concentrated on American continent. But then, half a millennium later, it was Asia s turn. The European World Order was constructed in 1815 after the Battle of Waterloo. First Britain and then America ruled the world. The Anglo American consortium won the battle for European hegemony in two World Wars and then the Cold War by 1991.
Vladivostok which once used to be part of China ''s Qing dynasty and was known as Haishenwai was annexed by the Russian empire in 1860 after China ''s defeat by the British and the French in the Second Opium war.Reacting to Russian embassy ''s tweet, Shen Shiwei, a journalist working with the state owned broadcaster CGTN, tweeted: ”This ”tweet ” of #Russian embassy to #China isn ''t so welcome on Weibo. The history of Vladivostok (literally 'Ruler of the East') is from 1860 when Russia built a military harbor. But the city was Haishenwai as Chinese land, before Russia annexed it via unequal Treaty of Beijing. ”
A sense of impasse seems to have set in into the process to reduce border tensions between India and China with no word on meetings in the coming days either at the military or diplomatic levels.The development comes as opposition against China s aggressive policies towards its neighbours grew stronger over the weekend with the Association of Southeast Asian Nations demanding that Beijing settle a dispute over the South China Sea through the provisions of a 1982 international treaty.
India and China have been in stand off hostility since the late 1950s when India discovered the Chinese incursion into Aksai Chin, a region where not a blade of grass grew as Jawaharlal Nehru told the Lok Sabha, hoping to avoid conflict. His attempts at negotiating with Zhou Enlai failed. The nation wanted Nehru to act. He gave orders to the Army to throw the Chinese out. We know the result.India and China are the two oldest civilisations in Asia, the only two in the world which have lasted four millennia or more. They were never at war with each other until 60 years ago. You could blame foreigners the British for provoking this division. It was the move by British Raj in the first decade of the last century which made Tibet cede territory to British India. China refused to sign the Indo Tibet Treaty.
Rumors have long flown around Area 51 CIA site, UFO dissection location, secret U.S. Air Force research facility? True or not, here are a couple of things we do know about Groom Lake. Soviet Airplane Evaluation One of the most successful foreign aircraft evaluations done in the United States was on the MiG 21. The MiG 21 a fighter interceptor that was introduced in 1959 and widely exported to countries with friendly ties to the Soviet Union. The MiG 21 proved to be a capable fighter in Vietnam, where it scored a shockingly high number of kills against U.S. airframes, despite being considerably older, slower, and less well armed. In 1966, Israel s Mossad Intelligence Agency arranged for a pilot in the Iraqi Air Force named Munir Redfa to defect from Iraq to Israel. Redfa was an Assyrian Christian who felt that his Christian heritage was preventing his advancement in the Iraqi Air Force. He was also a MiG 21 pilot. Mossad learned of his potential interest in defection, and in one of Mossad s most challenging missions, managed to smuggle his family out of Iraq to Israel. In a carefully choreographed mission, Redfa flew his MiG 21 from Iraq to an airfield in Israel, despite being seen on radar by Syrian air traffic controllers, who alerted the Iraqi Air Force. Israel used his MiG 21 to evaluate the airframe s capabilities and get a sense of what it was capable of. In 1968, the MiG 21 was loaned to the United States as a part of a Defense Intelligence Agency project called HAVE DOUGHNUT that existed for much the same purpose. The HAVE DOUGHNUT MiG 21 program took place at Area 51. A similar DIA program, HAVE DRILL, evaluated a MiG 17 that Israel had lucked upon, also at Groom Lake. Both the HAVE DOUGHNUT and HAVE DRILL programs helped revise the Air Force s tactics against Soviet fighters, particularly over Vietnam, where North Vietnamese pilots kills were close to on par with American kills and resulted in the creation of the famed Top Gun fighter pilot school. Stealthy Spies Area 51 also played host to a number of Air Force and CIA aircraft development projects. The U 2 spy plane, designed to spy over the Soviet Union, needed to be tested somewhere remote, away from prying eyes like a desert in Nevada. The U 2 s incredibly high cruising altitude, at around 70,000 feet, combined with it''s odd shape proved to be fertile ground for UFO hunters and conspiracy theorists. After a U 2 spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union in 1960, the CIA decided that rather than flying out of the reach of Soviet surface to air missiles and interceptors, they d fly faster at Mach 3 . It was at Groom Lake that the CIA conducted the initial testing and development of the CIA s A 12, eventually the SR 71 Blackbird. The Blackbird s successor, the SR 72, may be at Groom Lake too. Although the SR 71 airframe had some stealthy characteristics, it wasn t until 1977 that the Air Force first truly stealthy design was tested. The F 117 Nighthawk, discussed in another piece, was the world s first truly stealthy design, tested at you guessed it Groom Lake. Still Important? In 2019, a Russian plane, part of the Open Skies treaty between the United States and Russia, flew over Area 51 and photographed the sensitive installation and a number of other secretive military installations on the west coast. It seems that Area 51 may still have some secrets to uncover. Caleb Larson is a Defense Writer with The National Interest. He holds a Master of Public Policy and covers U.S. and Russian security, European defense issues, and German politics and culture. View the discussion thread. copy; Copyright 2020 Center for the National Interest All Rights Reserved
The two strongman leaders have grown closer as both come under fire in Western trade battles, culminating in a huge new project which sees Russia and China benefit from a new project connecting the countries. A new gas pipeline running 1800km between China and Russia, also known as the 'Power of Siberia' pipeline, commenced operation last week after five years of construction. While both countries will see the project as progress, its location in Siberia only highlights further the underlying differences between the two nations, as the region is the setting to longstanding border disputes.In 1828, The Russian Empire and Qing Dynasty signed the historic Aigun Treaty, separating the respective territories at the Amur river, located at China''s northeastern edge and Russia''s southeast.
Some cheer is in order. Thirty years after the United Nations General Assembly adopted the Convention on the Rights of the Child, there is some good news, at last: child marriage rates are falling across the world, largely because they are coming down in India. Right after the Convention, the world ''s most widely ratified human rights treaty, was adopted by the UN on November 20, 1989, child marriage was widespread across India. It was nearly 60 per cent in 1992 93 and prevalent in nearly all states mdash;highest in village India and in the central and western parts of the country. And even in states with overall lower prevalence, there were pockets of high child marriage hot spots. We all know that girls married as children are more likely to drop out of school, have limited decision making powers at home, more likely to face violence and abuse. As they become mothers, despite immature bodies and minds, they turn out to be worst victims of anaemia and malnutrition, passing it on to their children. This year ''s UN report, For Every Child, Every Right: The Convention on the Rights of The Child At A Crossroads, comes as a breather: while the pace of change remains slow, child marriage is definitely coming down to slightly less than 30 per cent now. Here is an extract from the report released this week to celebrate 30 years of the Convention.For Every Child, Every Right: The Convention on the Rights of The Child At A Crossroads, New York: United Nations Children ''s Fund (UNICEF), 2019.
Key point: Yet Germany was left too destitute to implement its plans. In 1917, even as Germany began to prepare to launch what it expected to be war winning offensives in the Atlantic and in France, its naval architects began to think about the postwar naval balance. Even if Germany could knock out France and Italy as great powers, it could only defeat Britain by applying economic pain, and that pain would end when the guns fell silent. Thus, Germany could look forward to renewed naval competition with the British, and almost certainly the Americans. Accordingly, the Germans developed designs for the advanced battlecruisers and battleships that would have become the new High Seas Fleet if Germany had won the war. Strategic Stage Until mid 1918, Germany expected to win the war, and expected that its future security threats would come primarily from maritime powers, namely the United States and the United Kingdom. Germany would win territorial and political concessions in the east and the west, and might be able to recover some of its colonial territories (or perhaps take some from France and Italy. Consequently, Germany would need a competitive surface fleet in addition to its U boats. The war had slowed capital ship construction in Britain and Germany (although notably not in Japan or the United States), and existing German ships were quickly approaching obsolescence. The only super dreadnoughts immediately available to the Germans would have been the four ships of the Bayern class (in reality, only two of the ships were completed) and the seven battlecruisers of the Mackensen class and Yorck class (of which none were completed). The Bayerns could make twenty one knots, and carried eight 15 guns on a 32,000 ton displacement. Both the Mackensen and Yorck classes were a major step up from the pre war battlecruisers. The Mackensen s carried eight 13.8 guns on a 36,000 ton displacement, with a speed of twenty eight knots, while the Yorcks would have carried eight 15 guns, displaced 38,000 tons, and made twenty seven knots. Against this, the Kaiserliche Marine faced twenty one British super dreadnoughts and four modern battlecruisers, along with another thirteen American super dreadnoughts. Both the British and the Americans threw themselves into post war construction, with the latter planning seven more battleships and six battlecruisers, and the former four battleships and four battlecruisers. Having won the war, Germany would have immediately faced a very threatening maritime environment. The L20e class was the beginning of the solution. Displacing 48,000 tons, the L20e would have carried eight 16.5 guns in four twin turrets and made twenty six knots. The L20e would have been roughly the same size as the proposed British N3 class, which traded three knots of speed for a much heavier main armament (9 18 guns in three triple turrets). The American South Dakotas would also have tipped the scales at 48,000 tons, with a speed of 23 knots, but would have carried twelve 16 guns in four triple turrets. The concentration on speed suggests that the German were prepping for a fast battleship squadron, similar in many ways to that of the Japanese. Japan s Nagato and (planned) Tosa class battleships could make twenty six knots; the successor Kii class would have made nearly thirty. In contrast to the British and American approaches, there was to be little gap between the fast battlecruisers and the slow battleships. Germany s decision on this point may have stemmed from lessons learned in the Battle of Jutland, where its battlecruisers endured enormous punishment while taking limited losses. It is likely a decision that would have paid off down the line; the slow battleships of the USN and RN were notably limited in the Second World War. Wrap In the real world, Germany was beaten, the High Seas Fleet was scuttled at Scapa, and the three great naval powers settled their differences with the Washington Naval Treaty. That treaty sharply limited naval construction, prohibiting the construction of an entire generation of new battleships. It offered a naval holiday that gave the people of the world a much needed rest after several years of bitter conflict. The Washington Naval Treaty was a means of managing competition between recent allies who could foresee conflict on the horizon. Had Germany won the war, relations with both the United States and the United Kingdom would have remained tense. Under these circumstances it is difficult to imagine how Germany would have participated in a multilateral arms control agreement like the Washington Naval Treaty. Having just escaped the Great War (and the influenza that followed it) the world would almost immediately have been thrown into another great naval race. This would have produced an altogether more dangerous world, with four different great powers struggling for maritime dominance. Robert Farley, a frequent contributor to the National Interest, is author of The Battleship Book . He serves as a senior lecturer at the Patterson School of Diplomacy and International Commerce at the University of Kentucky. This article first appeared earlier this year. Image: Wikipedia. View the discussion thread. copy; Copyright 2019 Center for the National Interest All Rights Reserved
Kashmiris were forced to stay doors without access to telephone lines, mobile phones or the internet for 13 days in most parts of the Muslim majority region. India #39;s decision to scrap a law key to the ascension treaty of the former princely state provoked international outrage and sporadic protests in the region.The government said over the weekend it was gradually restoring phone lines and easing the lockdown, but changes are slow. Public buses were running in rural areas, but soldiers limited the movement of people on mostly deserted streets in Srinagar.
Iran additionally warns it may withdraw from the settlement, designed to cease it buying nuclear weapons, in its entirety. President Trump pulled the US out of the deal, made by President Obama, in Might 2018. He claimed Iran had did not honour the spirit of the settlement by growing ballistic missiles and funding terror teams.Nevertheless the opposite signatories to the treaty, together with the UK, opposed the transfer and insisted Iran was in compliance.
U.S. officials said they are no longer hamstrung and could now develop weapons systems previously banned under the Intermediate range Nuclear Forces treaty with Russia, a Cold War era agreement that both sides repeatedly accused the other of violating. The treaty was also criticized because it did not cover China or missile technology that did not exist a generation ago.The end of the treaty comes amid rising doubts about whether the two countries will extend an agreement on long range nuclear weapons scheduled to expire in 2021. President Donald Trump said he has been discussing a new agreement to reduce nuclear weapons with China and Russia.
Gorbachev, 88, was the Soviet leader who inked the 1987 accord with U.S. President Ronald Reagan. The treaty banned ground launch nuclear and conventional missiles with ranges from 310 miles to 3,417 miles, removing roughly 2,700 such weapons from the front lines of the Cold War.The U.S. has accused Russia of developing weapons that contravene the agreement, specifically the SSC 8 9M729 cruise missile. U.S. officials believe the 9M729 has a range of between 310 and 620 miles, making it a breach of the agreement.
Tensions between the two nations reached fever pitch as the US claimed Moscow was in violation of the treaty by deploying and having land based medium range missiles in Europe. US President Donald Trump made the decision to terminate adherence to the 1987 arms control accord, known as the Intermediate range Nuclear Forces Treaty (INF), senior administration officials said. The treaty bans either side from stationing short and intermediate range, land based missiles in Europe. US Secretary of State, Mike Pompeo, confirmed Washington had pulled out of the 32 year old agreement, made at the end of the Cold War with Vladimir Putin's Russia on Twitter. He said: "On Feb 2nd, 2019 the US gave Russia six months to return to compliance with the Intermediate Range Nuclear Forces Treaty.
The Pentagon is ready to test a new non nuclear mobile launched cruise missile, according to a CNN report, which is a direct counter to Russia's development of similar capabilities while the treaty was still in place. President Trump announced he was removing the U.S. from the Intermediate Range Nuclear Forces Treaty earlier this year. The agreement, originally signed by the U.S. and the Soviet Union in 1987, effectively banned both sides from deploying missiles between the ranges of 310 and 3,400 miles.
Turkey would retaliate against what it called an unacceptable threat of sanctions by the United States over Ankara's purchase of Russian S 400 missile defences, its foreign minister said on Monday, adding that he thinks President Donald Trump wants to avoid such measures.Turkey began receiving deliveries of the surface to air S 400 systems earlier this month, prompting the US to begin removing the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) ally from its F 35 stealth fighter programme over security concerns.
Tbilisi, Georgia On an outcrop overlooking a plunging ravine in the Caucasus Mountains is a giant concrete monument shaped like a horseshoe. A Soviet era mural runs along its inside, depicting scenes from Georgia and Russia's tangled history.The "Friendship Arch", designed by Giorgi Tsereteli, was built above the ski resort of Gudauri in 1983, marking the bicentenary of an accord between Russia and Georgia known as the Treaty of Giorgievsk.