Key point: Thanks to the introduction of better fighters and the use of aggressive, realistic offensive fighter doctrines, American airmen attained not the air superiority they sought, but total air supremacy over the whole of western Europe. The popular conception of the struggle in the air over northern Europe during World War II is of squadrons of sleek fighters racing over the German heartland to protect contrailed streams of lumbering bombers stretching beyond sight. This is as it was during the second half of America s air war against Germany, but it was as far from the truth as it is possible to get at the start of that great aerial crusade. It took until late 1943 nearly two years after the United States entered World War II before the United Kingdom based Eighth Air Force mounted strategically significant bombing missions against targets in occupied northern Europe. The fault for this lay partly in the availability and slow development of the equipment, but it is also a fact that the two men at the top of the Eighth Air Force command structure stubbornly clung to old and discredited theories that stunted the effectiveness of the strategic bombing effort and cost thousands of their countrymen their freedom or their lives. In the beginning, the fighter was a short legged creature whose role of protecting the bombers was eclipsed by its role of guarding friendly territory and installations. The difference, which is crucial, was the product of technology range and the power of aircraft engines and intellect. Until late 1943, surprisingly late in the war, the use of the fighter as an offensive weapon was stunted by the defensive mind set of the pursuit acolytes of the interwar decades. The pursuit airplane had evolved over the fixed battlefields of Western Europe during World War I. Pursuit aircraft had been developed to prevent enemy reconnaissance airplanes from overflying friendly lines and to protect friendly observation airplanes from enemy pursuits while the observers overflew enemy lines. The pursuit was conceived as a tactical and a defensive weapon, and it was limited to these roles both by conception and by the technologies of the day. The Army Air Corps Between the world wars, the development of American pursuit aircraft was hobbled by budgetary restrictions that for many years slowed or obviated altogether the creation of new technologies or even methodical experimentation with new tactics. The U.S. Marine Corps did advance the use of the single engine pursuit as a nascent close support weapon to bolster the infantry, but the interests of various intra Army constituencies prevented similar advances in what had come to be called the Army Air Corps. To the degree that it developed at all, the Air Corps saw increasingly heavy and longer ranged bombers in its future. And, as the limited available research and development dollars were expended on speedier bombers, the pursuits of the day were increasingly outranged and outrun. Inevitably, American bombers of the late 1930s were designed to be self defending because they could fly much farther and at least somewhat faster than could the pursuits of the day. The pursuits, which were being developed at a much slower pace, were relegated to a point defense role guarding cities, industrial targets, and air bases. When World War II began, the Air Corps shortly to be renamed the Army Air Forces was divided into two distinct combat arms, fighters and bombers. And, by virtue of the fighter s stunted development, there appeared little chance that the two would spend much time working together. As soon as the Army Air Corps was pulled into World War II it became focused on the defense of American coastal cities, several Caribbean islands, bases in Greenland and Iceland, and on the strategically indispensable Panama Canal. There were few airplanes of any type to devote to these defensive missions, and those that were deployed defensively also had to serve as on the job trainers for hundreds of the raw young pilots emerging from the Air Forces burgeoning flight schools. Through the first half of 1942, all of the very few pilots and airplanes that could be spared from the defense of the U.S. coasts and sea lanes were rushed to defend Australia and the South Pacific. Dozens of precious airplanes and pilots were lost in the pathetic defense of Java, in the Netherlands East Indies, and many more were lost in the early defensive battles around Port Moresby, New Guinea, but Army Air Forces training commands were able to catch up with combat and training losses as well as with the heavy burden imposed by the formation of new fighter, bomber, and other type groups. And better fighters with a higher probability of survival began to reach operational air groups. Committing to American Air Power Fortunately, the United States could afford to be a bit late off the mark in her war against Germany. German efforts in 1940 to bring Great Britain to her knees all had failed miserably and, by the end of 1941, the bulk of Germany s air and land forces were mired in a frightful war of attrition deep inside Russia. The British had the situation in northern Europe reasonably well in hand, though they would have collapsed had not vast infusions of weapons and supplies from the United States sustained them. British forces in Egypt and Libya were teetering on the edge of defeat, but there was little the United States would be able to do for many months to influence the outcome assuming the British held on that long. So, while the Army Air Forces devoted the bulk of its limited expendable resources to defensive measures against Japan, new air groups were created, and new and better combat aircraft began rolling off newly created assembly lines. Finally, in the spring of 1942, it was decided in high Army Air Forces circles to commit American air power to northern Europe. At first, the commitment would be little more than a meager show of force masking an advanced combat training program overseen by the Royal Air Force (RAF). Only later, when training bases and factories in the United States had caught up with the planning, would the U.S. Army Air Forces take on a strategic air campaign against the German industrial heartland. Brigadier General Ira Eaker arrived in England on February 20, 1942 to establish the headquarters of the new VIII Bomber Command. He opened his headquarters at High Wycombe, England on February 23, 1942, but the VIII Bomber Command had no combat airplanes to its name; they would not be available for several months. Rather, it fell to Eaker to argue with his British hosts in favor of an independent role for the forthcoming Army Air Forces in Europe. The RAF and the British government wanted America s commitment to the air war in Europe to be subordinate to or an adjunct of the British Theatre air war. The Americans, however, felt they deserved an independent role, and it was Eaker s job to win the British over to this viewpoint. The American notion was strongly bolstered in argument, at least by the fact that the Army Air Forces had developed over many years a theoretical strategic air doctrine that was quite different from the RAF s experience based strategic doctrine. The Americans favored and had equipped their bomber force to wage a precision daylight bombing campaign against industrial targets hundreds of miles inside enemy territory. The RAF was the only other air force in the world that had developed long range, four engine, heavy bombers, but its doctrine the result of bloody experiences early in the war favored area bombing at night. Doctrinal arguments aside, the British victims of the Nazi Blitz of 1940 1941 were less squeamish than their American Allies about bombing German civilians. Besides, the RAF had few long range heavy bombers to its name, and thus felt it needed to co opt the promised infusion of American heavies. For the time being, Eaker s arguments with the RAF hierarchy were moot. There would be no American air combat units in the United Kingdom for several months, and then there would not be enough of them to make a dent in Hitler s Fortress Europa for many more months. A Symbolic Commitment between Allies The first VIII Bomber Command unit to arrive in England on May 10, 1942 was the 97th Heavy Bombardment Group, which was equipped with Boeing B 17 Flying Fortress four engine heavy bombers. This was a symbolic commitment, for the 97th had been activated in February 1942 and thus had not had time to be adequately trained to fly combat missions over heavily defended European targets. It would be months before the 97th saw any live action. Around the time the 97th Heavy Bombardment Group became the first nominal combat unit to join Eaker s VIII Bomber Command, Brig. Gen. Frank Monk Hunter arrived in England to establish the headquarters of his VIII Fighter Command, also at High Wycombe. Unlike Eaker, Hunter, a rather flamboyant World War I ace, quickly came to terms with British beliefs and aspirations regarding the employment of forthcoming American fighter groups. The RAF had opted for powerful, short range, point defense fighters that could defend friendly air bases and attack nearby enemy air bases, and its doctrine appeared to have proven itself during the Battle of Britain and the Blitz. Hunter, who had spent most of his career arguing the point defense case for the U.S. Army s fighters, was eager to augment the British fighter plan. 1 2 3 4 Next View the discussion thread. copy; Copyright 2019 Center for the National Interest All Rights Reserved
The Comprehensive National Nutrition Survey (CNNS) 2016 18, an extensive online dashboard released last month, showed that the number of stunted children below five years of age has come down to 3.87 crore in 2016 18 from 5.55 crore in 2005 06 a fall of 30 per cent.Stunting was one of the primary reasons why the mid day meal scheme was introduced in India. It is caused by an insufficient intake of nutrients and frequent infections. The UNICEF calls it a measure of profound physical and cognitive underdevelopment , as it leads to a lower height than the average for a child s age.
The minute long spot will air tonight on TBS during the NCAA Final Four basketball tournament, and has been dubbed A New Kind Of Camera Company . The clip covers the app s various use cases from taking family portraits to toying with its popular Lenses feature to checking out user submitted Stories from across the globe. It s a camera for talking, a narrator explains, because a Snap says more than a text. So yeah, Snapchat is a camera, where how you feel matters more than how you look. The tagline could be a dig at competitor Instagram, notes The Drum, which has stunted Snapchat;s growth after pilfering its Stories feature, and which is also known for prizing aesthetics.In addition to the TV component, Snap is also launching a website, whatis.snapchat.com, in a bid to educate consumers. The campaign arrives as Snapchat which counts 187 million users is facing a bout of bad news, including several rounds of layoffs, criticism from high profile users, and a widely derided redesign.
However, what we did not know was that the activity of these dark voids even have an impact on star formation a phenomenon crucial for galactic evolution. A new study has revealed that the birth of new stars is stunted in galaxies with such supermassive black holes.
The RJD was a constituent of Grand Alliance government that had promulgated total prohibition in Bihar in April last year. Lalu Prasad stood next to Kumar at Gandhi Maidan in the state capital during formation of a mammoth human chain in support of prohibition on January 21, 2017. Now in opposition, RJD supremo Lalu Prasad and his son Tejaswhi Yadav, who is leader of Opposition in the state Assembly, have been making scathing attack at Kumar on liquor policy. ;The ban on alcohol has transformed our society. Domestic violence has gone down, people are spending more on their children education. Fruits of rapid economic growth, which the state has been experiencing for many years, is not being wasted on a bad habit;, Kumar said counting virtues of alcohol ban. "Social evils must be targeted if we do not wish to fritter away the benefits of economic progress. That is why we did not stop at prohibition and launched a campaign against child marriage and dowry. Child marriage is detrimental to the health of women and leads to diseased and stunted progeny. The anxiety of arranging dowry often leads parents to marry off their daughters at a young age, " the chief minister said. "I urge all people to boycott such wedding ceremonies where dowry is taken. The parties concerned will feel ashamed and isolated and set an example before others. I have myself made it clear that I would not attend any marriage function where it is not stated clearly on the invitation cards that the ceremony will be performed without any dowry ", he said.
One pupil, with Type 1 Diabetes, was banned from going on the school trip because a hospital appointment stunted her otherwise perfect record. Medical appointments are not exempt from the schools attendance policies, meaning Olivia Harkins, 7, will miss out because she had to see her consultant at Adler Hey Children's Hospital.
The rising global population and soaring water demand mean the amount of drinkable water for every person on the planet is expected to halve by 2050, but rising temperatures as a result of climate change will make this even worseAbout one on four child on the planet will die, have their growth stunted or otherwise suffer from a lack of water by 2040, Unicef has warned in a new report.
On Thursday, the tech world was in a frenzy after Indian news site Factor Daily reported on the possible deal, which seemed plausible given that Alibaba already owns a minority stake in Snapdeal (Foxconn and SoftBank also own stakes). The move was seen as a way for Alibaba to capture a larger portion of the $23 billion India e commerce market where it has underinvested for years.By contrast, Amazon founder and CEO Jeff Bezos has poured tons of money into India, investing an estimated $5 billion in expansion efforts on Amazon India. These moves have stunted the growth and traction of competitors Flipkart and Snapdeal. And while a buyout of Snapdeal would have helped Alibaba narrow the gap with Amazon, the deal's impact on Amazon would have been negligible. (See also: Amazon Invests $3 Billion in India)
UNICEF Bhutan Country Representative, Rudolf Schwenk, informed Khan about the steps taken by the United Nations (UN) programme to tackle the stunted growth issue across Bhutan."Today, I heard many remarkable stories about how young mothers have been able to deliver healthy babies despite complications and challenges," Khan stated in a video on the UNICEF South Asia's Facebook page.
Nigeria 's government has removed more than 20,000 non existent workers from its payroll following an audit, leading to savings of 2.29 billion naira ($11.53 million) from its monthly wage bill, the Finance Ministry said on Sunday.Corruption and mismanagement have long stunted development in Africa 's biggest economy and top oil producer and are now exacerbating the impact of a sharp fall in global crude prices.
Even before Transparent premiered in 2014, I knew it was going to to be a standout show for me. With television a wasteland of trans storytelling, Transparent was part of the movement to change trans representations in mainstream media. Focused on the Pfefferman family, the show centers around their patriarch coming out late in life and the stunted growth of the rest of the family as they come into their own sexualities, genders, and identities. Amid concerns from the LGBT community that it wasn™t representative enough, accolades rolled in, including Golden Globe and Emmy awards.Now, I was going to be an extra on the show, and Iâ€™d foolishly turned down the option to do it in the nude.
India&'s latest data on the state of nutrition came as a mixed bag, with malnutrition rates declining faster than before but not nearly fast enough for to meet global targets. The India Health Report: Nutrition 2015 was released on Thursday by union health minister JP Nadda and Union women and child development minister Maneka Gandhi. The report, and health experts from Public Foundation of India and the International Food Policy Research Institute, who jointly organised the launch, cautiously congratulated India for its progress, but stressed that a lot more needed to be done, and fast.The report, that details nutrition data from across 28 states and Delhi, shows that 38.7 per cent of children under 5 in India are stunted, which is a measure of chronic undernutrition. Additionally 19.8 per cent are wasted, indicating acute undernutrition and 42.56 per cent are underweight which is a composite of the two conditions.