Key point: Thanks to the introduction of better fighters and the use of aggressive, realistic offensive fighter doctrines, American airmen attained not the air superiority they sought, but total air supremacy over the whole of western Europe. The popular conception of the struggle in the air over northern Europe during World War II is of squadrons of sleek fighters racing over the German heartland to protect contrailed streams of lumbering bombers stretching beyond sight. This is as it was during the second half of America s air war against Germany, but it was as far from the truth as it is possible to get at the start of that great aerial crusade. It took until late 1943 nearly two years after the United States entered World War II before the United Kingdom based Eighth Air Force mounted strategically significant bombing missions against targets in occupied northern Europe. The fault for this lay partly in the availability and slow development of the equipment, but it is also a fact that the two men at the top of the Eighth Air Force command structure stubbornly clung to old and discredited theories that stunted the effectiveness of the strategic bombing effort and cost thousands of their countrymen their freedom or their lives. In the beginning, the fighter was a short legged creature whose role of protecting the bombers was eclipsed by its role of guarding friendly territory and installations. The difference, which is crucial, was the product of technology range and the power of aircraft engines and intellect. Until late 1943, surprisingly late in the war, the use of the fighter as an offensive weapon was stunted by the defensive mind set of the pursuit acolytes of the interwar decades. The pursuit airplane had evolved over the fixed battlefields of Western Europe during World War I. Pursuit aircraft had been developed to prevent enemy reconnaissance airplanes from overflying friendly lines and to protect friendly observation airplanes from enemy pursuits while the observers overflew enemy lines. The pursuit was conceived as a tactical and a defensive weapon, and it was limited to these roles both by conception and by the technologies of the day. The Army Air Corps Between the world wars, the development of American pursuit aircraft was hobbled by budgetary restrictions that for many years slowed or obviated altogether the creation of new technologies or even methodical experimentation with new tactics. The U.S. Marine Corps did advance the use of the single engine pursuit as a nascent close support weapon to bolster the infantry, but the interests of various intra Army constituencies prevented similar advances in what had come to be called the Army Air Corps. To the degree that it developed at all, the Air Corps saw increasingly heavy and longer ranged bombers in its future. And, as the limited available research and development dollars were expended on speedier bombers, the pursuits of the day were increasingly outranged and outrun. Inevitably, American bombers of the late 1930s were designed to be self defending because they could fly much farther and at least somewhat faster than could the pursuits of the day. The pursuits, which were being developed at a much slower pace, were relegated to a point defense role guarding cities, industrial targets, and air bases. When World War II began, the Air Corps shortly to be renamed the Army Air Forces was divided into two distinct combat arms, fighters and bombers. And, by virtue of the fighter s stunted development, there appeared little chance that the two would spend much time working together. As soon as the Army Air Corps was pulled into World War II it became focused on the defense of American coastal cities, several Caribbean islands, bases in Greenland and Iceland, and on the strategically indispensable Panama Canal. There were few airplanes of any type to devote to these defensive missions, and those that were deployed defensively also had to serve as on the job trainers for hundreds of the raw young pilots emerging from the Air Forces burgeoning flight schools. Through the first half of 1942, all of the very few pilots and airplanes that could be spared from the defense of the U.S. coasts and sea lanes were rushed to defend Australia and the South Pacific. Dozens of precious airplanes and pilots were lost in the pathetic defense of Java, in the Netherlands East Indies, and many more were lost in the early defensive battles around Port Moresby, New Guinea, but Army Air Forces training commands were able to catch up with combat and training losses as well as with the heavy burden imposed by the formation of new fighter, bomber, and other type groups. And better fighters with a higher probability of survival began to reach operational air groups. Committing to American Air Power Fortunately, the United States could afford to be a bit late off the mark in her war against Germany. German efforts in 1940 to bring Great Britain to her knees all had failed miserably and, by the end of 1941, the bulk of Germany s air and land forces were mired in a frightful war of attrition deep inside Russia. The British had the situation in northern Europe reasonably well in hand, though they would have collapsed had not vast infusions of weapons and supplies from the United States sustained them. British forces in Egypt and Libya were teetering on the edge of defeat, but there was little the United States would be able to do for many months to influence the outcome assuming the British held on that long. So, while the Army Air Forces devoted the bulk of its limited expendable resources to defensive measures against Japan, new air groups were created, and new and better combat aircraft began rolling off newly created assembly lines. Finally, in the spring of 1942, it was decided in high Army Air Forces circles to commit American air power to northern Europe. At first, the commitment would be little more than a meager show of force masking an advanced combat training program overseen by the Royal Air Force (RAF). Only later, when training bases and factories in the United States had caught up with the planning, would the U.S. Army Air Forces take on a strategic air campaign against the German industrial heartland. Brigadier General Ira Eaker arrived in England on February 20, 1942 to establish the headquarters of the new VIII Bomber Command. He opened his headquarters at High Wycombe, England on February 23, 1942, but the VIII Bomber Command had no combat airplanes to its name; they would not be available for several months. Rather, it fell to Eaker to argue with his British hosts in favor of an independent role for the forthcoming Army Air Forces in Europe. The RAF and the British government wanted America s commitment to the air war in Europe to be subordinate to or an adjunct of the British Theatre air war. The Americans, however, felt they deserved an independent role, and it was Eaker s job to win the British over to this viewpoint. The American notion was strongly bolstered in argument, at least by the fact that the Army Air Forces had developed over many years a theoretical strategic air doctrine that was quite different from the RAF s experience based strategic doctrine. The Americans favored and had equipped their bomber force to wage a precision daylight bombing campaign against industrial targets hundreds of miles inside enemy territory. The RAF was the only other air force in the world that had developed long range, four engine, heavy bombers, but its doctrine the result of bloody experiences early in the war favored area bombing at night. Doctrinal arguments aside, the British victims of the Nazi Blitz of 1940 1941 were less squeamish than their American Allies about bombing German civilians. Besides, the RAF had few long range heavy bombers to its name, and thus felt it needed to co opt the promised infusion of American heavies. For the time being, Eaker s arguments with the RAF hierarchy were moot. There would be no American air combat units in the United Kingdom for several months, and then there would not be enough of them to make a dent in Hitler s Fortress Europa for many more months. A Symbolic Commitment between Allies The first VIII Bomber Command unit to arrive in England on May 10, 1942 was the 97th Heavy Bombardment Group, which was equipped with Boeing B 17 Flying Fortress four engine heavy bombers. This was a symbolic commitment, for the 97th had been activated in February 1942 and thus had not had time to be adequately trained to fly combat missions over heavily defended European targets. It would be months before the 97th saw any live action. Around the time the 97th Heavy Bombardment Group became the first nominal combat unit to join Eaker s VIII Bomber Command, Brig. Gen. Frank Monk Hunter arrived in England to establish the headquarters of his VIII Fighter Command, also at High Wycombe. Unlike Eaker, Hunter, a rather flamboyant World War I ace, quickly came to terms with British beliefs and aspirations regarding the employment of forthcoming American fighter groups. The RAF had opted for powerful, short range, point defense fighters that could defend friendly air bases and attack nearby enemy air bases, and its doctrine appeared to have proven itself during the Battle of Britain and the Blitz. Hunter, who had spent most of his career arguing the point defense case for the U.S. Army s fighters, was eager to augment the British fighter plan. 1 2 3 4 Next View the discussion thread. copy; Copyright 2019 Center for the National Interest All Rights Reserved
Key point: Brazil and other countries contributed forces, logistics, bases, or aid to help the Allies win World War II. The term United Nations was in large part derived from the large number of nations that joined in common cause between 1939 and 1945 to defeat the Axis powers of Germany, Japan, and Italy during World War II. Scores of nations joined the major Allied powers to contribute, directly or indirectly, to the defeat of the common enemy. One of those nations was South America s largest country, Brazil. The significant contribution of her wealth, resources, and blood of her own people is, unfortunately, little remembered today. Latin America in World War II Originally, Latin America was important to the United States for the resources it provided to a nation soon to be at war. In 1940, 90 percent of the region s coffee, 83 percent of the sugar, 78 percent of the bauxite, 70 percent of the tungsten, as well as significant percentages of tin, copper, and crude oil were imported to the United States for both domestic and military consumption. Although the United States was not yet at war, it had concerns about Latin America, for a dictator sympathetic to Adolf Hitler or Benito Mussolini might cause trouble for a United States that was trying to remain neutral. German propaganda took full advantage of the opportunity and distributed literature and films in Spanish to encourage dissension throughout Latin America. It even established a propaganda radio station in Montevideo, Uruguay. Mexico was already at odds with the United States. It had expropriated American oil companies, and the United States was claiming that communist and National Socialist plots were prevalent throughout that country. And the Mexican government was ready to expel any American agents within its borders that were identified. Mexico also clearly anticipated a German victory, which the country was expected to use to strengthen its position with the United States. Mexico finally sent a squadron of fighter aircraft to the Pacific late in the war. Other Central and South American countries such as Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, El Salvador, Peru, and Venezuela wanted no part of the conflict and remained on the sidelines. Brazil s Road to War In Brazil in June 1940, President Get lio Vargas had already informed the German ambassador that Brazil fully intended to maintain its independence, despite Vargas s known dislike of the democratic system and the appeal he personally felt for totalitarian states. Other states, like Argentina, were split in their loyalties. Chile, Uruguay, and Panama (of the Spanish speaking countries, only Panama entered into a declaration of war) were sympathetic to the American camp, but the United States had to bring the entire continent onto its side. To do so, President Franklin Roosevelt established the Inter American Financial and Economic Committee, based in Panama. Then a number of conferences were held in Panama, Rio de Janeiro, and Washington, D.C., to settle differences between the members. The Chapultepec Conference held in Mexico resulted in an agreement that laid the foundations of the future cooperation of the American states. With Nelson A. Rockefeller as his coordinator for inter American affairs, President Roosevelt loaned the Latin American states money, increased imports from them to the United States, and sent American technicians to modernize the economy of the various countries. The Germans did much to push Brazil into the American camp. U boat attacks off the coast of Brazil sank several Brazilian ships and killed over 600 of its citizens, including women and children. After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, President Vargas decided to honor his nation s commitments to the United States and, in January 1942, broke diplomatic relations with Germany, Japan, and Italy. The Brazilian Navy immediately took steps to protect its shipping while the air force conducted offshore patrols to detect enemy submarines. Several Brazilian military bases were ceded to the United States for similar uses. The sinking of Brazilian ships continued, however, with another dozen ships gone by August 1942. Vargas and his government had enough provocation by this point, and in the same month declared war on Germany and Italy. The Creation of the Brazilian Expeditionary Force It took longer for Brazil to decide how to contribute to the Allied war effort. Concerns that the fascist forces in North Africa, which bulged too close for comfort just across the South Atlantic, might take some aggressive action against Brazil, kept her forces at home in a protective mode. But with the Allied invasion of North Africa in November 1942 and the eventual defeat of the Axis forces there, Brazil turned to a more active role in the war. On December 31, 1942, President Vargas announced in a speech that his government was beginning to think on the responsibilities of an extra continental action. This idea would soon develop into the Brazilian Expeditionary Force, which would fight alongside the Allies in Italy in 1944 and 1945. The first concrete steps were taken at a conference between Presidents Roosevelt and Vargas at Natal in northeastern Brazil on January 28, 1943. There the two heads of state agreed that Brazil would make some physical contribution to the Allied war effort beyond protecting its own borders. That March, President Vargas issued an Explanation of Motives written earlier by the war minister in which he proposed the organization of an expeditionary force to fight outside the continent. Thus was born the Brazilian Expeditionary Force, or BEF. Although the idea had taken hold, there remained problems within Brazil itself. There were strong elements within the Vargas government who opposed Brazil s participation in the war against the Axis powers. Then there was the problem of organizing, training, equipping, and staffing such a force. There was also a need to infuse into the Brazilian people a will to fight a war in the Old World, which was far away and often resented by factions of the populace. But Vargas and his followers began campaigns to overcome each of these obstacles in turn, and by the fall of 1943 he accomplished his goal. The BEF would consist largely of a single infantry division based on the contemporary American model. To create such a unit, existing Brazilian military units would be consolidated into the necessary combat formations. Thus, the three infantry regiments were formed from units spread across Brazil. The 1st Infantry Regiment, or Sampaio Regiment, came from the military district of Rio de Janeiro. The 6th Infantry Regiment, formerly the Ipiranga Regiment, came from S o Paulo State. The 11th Infantry Regiment was formerly known as the Tiradentes Regiment and came from Minas Gerais State. Most of the artillery was formed from units then based in and around Rio de Janeiro and S o Paulo. The unit s 9th Engineer Battalion came from Aquidauana, Mato Grosso State, while the Reconnaissance Squadron was formed out of the 2nd Mechanized Regiment, based within the city of Rio de Janeiro. The medical battalion consisted of units based in both Rio de Janeiro and S o Paulo. On October 7, 1943, Maj. Gen. Jo o Baptista Mascarenhas de Moraes was appointed to command the assembled units. The general was born in S o Gabriel, Rio Grande de Sul State, in 1883, and at age 16 entered the Rio Pardo Military School as a cadet. He then completed his military training at the Brazilian Military School in Rio de Janeiro and was commissioned a second lieutenant. Later in his career he won first place in the Officers Higher Training School and third place at the General Staff School; both courses were directed by the French military mission. He continued to rise in rank and responsibilities until he reached the highest post of chief of the Brazilian Expeditionary Force. Adopting the American Military Model For many years prior to the outbreak of World War II, the Brazilian military had been instructed by a French military mission. All of its military equipment was European. This ceased with the surrender of France in 1940. Now the Brazilian forces were to participate in a foreign war with different allies, and new tactics and techniques, not to mention organizational skills, had to be learned. To this end, General Mascarenhas traveled to the United States to quickly learn American military techniques, organization, and equipment. In Brazil the complete transformation of the BEF from a European model organization to an American based one took time and a great deal of effort. For example, the BEF had to be motorized, more specialists trained, and new equipment introduced. The M1 Garand rifle, the 60mm mortar, bazooka, .30 caliber light machine gun, 57mm antitank gun, and the 105mm artillery pieces, among others, were unknown to the Brazilians. These all had to be acquired, learned, and then implemented within the unit s structure, which itself was changing. Recruitment of personnel, particularly for the specialist positions, was difficult and time consuming. Additionally, many of its leading officers were still undergoing training in the United States. In December, General Mascarenhas traveled to Italy with a group of observers viewing the Italian campaign. On December 28, 1943, Mascarenhas was officially named commander of the 1st Expeditionary Infantry Division (1st EID), and in January, upon his return from Italy, he assumed command of the still forming BEF. 1 2 3 4 5 Next View the discussion thread. copy; Copyright 2019 Center for the National Interest All Rights Reserved
The story revolves around four ISA (Indian Space Agency) women scientists who overcome a seemingly impossible technical deficit to launch the Mars Mission. Nandita Hariprasad (played by Sakshi Tanwar) who is the Program Director of M O M, comes across as a no nonsense woman who never lets short term emotions get in the way of her and her team s long term goals. The audience got a glimpse of her fierce character in the trailer which was loved by everyone. Moushumi Ghosh (played by Mona Singh) the Project Manager, is competitive to the core of her bones and hates it when she is not the one winning it all. Neetu Sinha (played by Nidhi Singh) Sr. Scientist Mission Design and Navigation and a born pessimist, believes that if there is a possibility of anything going wrong, it most probably will. What got her this position in ISA (Indian Space Agency) is her brilliant mathematics. Lastly, it is Meghan Reddy (played by Palomi Ghosh), a certified genius and an engineering geek, who puts her best foot forward to make this mission a success. These women not just make the whole nation proud, but also place India ahead of many other countries on the map. In the process, they conquer their own inward imperfections, making for an inspirational story.Commenting on the launch of the web series, Sakshi Tanwar said, During our research phase, we were shown an impressive documentary on this mission and we got a glimpse of the narrative and what all went into making it a success. Through this web series, we not only tried to celebrate the tremendous achievement of our nation but also the sheer hard work, grit, and determination of these wonderful women scientists.
Laurence Fishburne is headed across the Atlantic for a UFO encounter.The Emmy winning actor and producer (Black ish, Miss Evers #39; Boys) has signed on to star in and executive produce Rendlesham, a limited series from British company Eleventh Hour Films (Foyle #39;s War) and Sony Pictures Television.
NEW DELHI: The Centre should bring out a ;white paper; on Partition to avoid the distortion of history, an organisation comprising old students from various minority institutions said today. The controversy over a portrait of Pakistan founder Mohammed Ali Jinnah in the Aligarh Muslim University was ploy to defame the varsity and create differences, said Basir Ahmad Khan, member of the Minority Universities Alumni Front, at a press conference here. ;The portrait has been there for last 80 years, it is a part of history and no one can change it,; said former pro vice chancellor of IGNOU Basir Ahmad Khan, while asserting that the Centre should come out with a ;white paper; on Partition and avoid the distortion of history once and for all. Khan, who is also the ex president of AMU student union, said they are of the opinion that leaders of both the countries be it Mahatma Gandhi or Mohammad Ali Jinnah should be respected. He also said that Pakistan came into being by virtue of a pact between three parties, and that now the whole thing was being blamed upon Jinnah alone. ;When Bangladesh situation was there (war), there was a meeting of security council in New York. There the foreign minister of India Sardar Swaran Singh said #8216;Pakistan came into existence by virtue of a pact among three parties; - the British government, Indian National Congress and All India Muslim League. ;It was passed by working committee of Congress, passed by the AIML and passed by the House of Commons in England. Now it has become a controversial issue whether Jinnah was the only responsible for it,; he said. He added that they would be meeting the President also to apprise him about the attacks on minority institutions. The district administration had yesterday warned that strong action will taken against those involved in the AMU campus violence on May 2. On May 2, AMU students clashed with the police demanding action against the right wing protesters for allegedly barging into the campus and demanding the removal of the Pakistan founder;s picture hanging on the walls of the student union office for decades.
Last night Angel Olsen kicked off her latest tour at the Jefferson Theater in Charlottesville, VA. During the set she covered the David Bowie classic "Five Years," the opening track to 1972's The Rise and Fall of Ziggy Stardust and the Spiders from Mars. Watch fan shot video of part of her cover below.In 2016 Olsen released a fantastic new album, MY WOMAN, via Jagjaguwar. It made it to #3 on Under the Radar's Top 100 Albums of 2016 list. While she hasn't announced its follow up album yet, earlier this month (via Jagjaguwar) released Phases, a new collection of B sides, rarities, and demos, including some previously unreleased tracks. It was our Album of the Week.
The Dalai Lama said India and China have gone through phases in the past when they used harsh words ” against each other and added the only way forward is the Hindi Chini, Bhai Bhai ” (Indians and Chinese are brothers), a phrase that defined the ties between the two countries in the 1950s, spirit. Even in 1962 (India China war), Chinese forces which reached Bomdila (in Arunachal Pradesh), eventually withdrew. India and China have to live side by side, ” the Dalai Lama, whom India calls a spiritual leader and an honoured guest but the Chinese term him a dangerous separatist ” said.
The poll results for Most Anticipated Actress found Melissa McCarthy on top for her role in the Ghostbusters reboot. She was followed by Scarlett Johansson (Captain America: Civil War), Jennifer Lawrence (X Men: Apocalypse), Emily Blunt (The Girl on the Train) and Charlize Theron (The Huntsman: Winter's War). The top 5 Most Anticipated Actor results found Matt Damon in the top spot for the Untitled Next Bourne Chapter, followed by Will Smith (Suicide Squad), Ryan Reynolds (Deadpool), Ben Affleck (Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice) and George Clooney for Hail, Caesar .For Rising Female Movie Star, Fandango fans chose Sophie Turner for her role in X Men: Apocalypse. She was followed by Leslie Jones from Ghostbusters, Karen Fukuhara from Suicide Squad, Christina Wren from Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice and Nadia Hilker from The Divergent Series: Allegiant. The Rising Male Movie Star winner was Tom Holland from Captain America: Civil War, followed by Riz Ahmed from Rogue One: A Star Wars Story, Tye Sheridan from X Men: Apocalypse, Stephan James from Race and Ed Speleers from Alice Through the Looking Glass.
According to police, the incident took place at about 2 pm.â€œThe owner of some shops in the Rabupura kasba had demolished his shops and was renovating the building. Close to these shops is a graveyard. There was some dispute over the ownership of the property. As construction workers began work on the shops, members of the other group reached the venue and raised objections, maintaining that the land belonged to the graveyard,â€ said Dileep Singh, Circle Officer (Jewar).