As an e mobility pioneer, BMW has already delivered half a million electrified vehicles to customers worldwide.For more read: BMW Sold Half A Million Electric Cars Worlwide
Space Exploration is a challenging, complex and very expensive endeavour. Any mission scenario is different and similarly challenging from the other. Currently the major space agencies are working towards destinations where human beings could one day live, such as the Moon and Mars. From my point of view both Celestial bodies are important for the future of exploration, for different reasons. The Moon for its vicinity to us and its strong relation with our wonderful planet; Mars being the only planet in our solar system that for distance and basic characteristics could be a realistic target for long duration space exploration. Nevertheless, and in order to achieve solid results it is very important to synchronise as much as possible the technological developments. If we wish one day to have humans living outside Earth, a clear step no matter the target shall be detailed by scientific characterisation and knowledge of the corresponding environments. We still need to understand how to protect our astronauts from the harsh space environment, how to use the planetary local resources for refurbishment or life support, get to know if there has been life on a certain surface and what happened, so on.The list of technologies needed for the next big move in space can be very large and different depending on the final target. For sure, launch vehicles are still a limit for space exploration in general, and even more in the case of human space exploration. We are still very young in in situ resources, utilisation and exploitation, in radiation protection, etc. Regarding Martian rovers an evident key area is giving them as much autonomy and long traverse capabilities as possible. The latter clearly for a wider access to the planetary surface. Regarding on board autonomy it is essential to increase as much as possible the scientific return, robustness and reliability, on board resources optimisation, the future collaboration with astronauts, etc.
Some might snicker when Byton CEO Daniel Kircher called the M Byte EV ;the first smart device on wheels,; but not the people attending this show. Of the vehicle introductions and concept cars, all were electrified - EVs or plug in hybrids - with no gas engine only vehicles introduced.Here are some highlights from the car and car tech part of CES 2020.
Electric vehicle startup Rivian said on Monday it closed a $1.3 billion investment round, led by fund manager T. Rowe Price but also including existing investors online retailer Amazon.com Inc and No. 2 U.S. automaker Ford Motor Co. The investment round, which also included BlackRock Inc, is the fourth this year for Rivian and positions the Plymouth, Michigan based company as one of the better financed players in a crowded EV manufacturing market where Tesla Inc is the most established player."This investment demonstrates confidence in our team, products, technology and strategy," Rivian Chief Executive R.J. Scaringe said in a statement. Electric vehicles still make up only a small piece of the global automotive market. While Tesla is the best known maker, China and Europe are pushing automakers to roll out EVs, and Ford, General Motors Co and others have announced plans to spend billions of dollars developing the vehicles.
That;s a lot of money, but Rivian;s not your typical startup, as it;s aiming to bring fully electric vehicles to market, including the R1T pickup truck and the R1S sport utility vehicle. Both of those are consumer cars, which the company aims to bring to market starting at the end of next year #8212; and Rivian is also working with Amazon on all electric delivery vans, of which the commerce giant has ordered 100,000, with a target of starting deliveries of the first of those in 2021.Rivian ''s new monster round includes participation from Amazon and Ford Motor Company, along with funds advised by T. Rowe Price Associates and BlackRock, the company said in a release. It ''s not adding any new board seats attached to this funding, and it ''s not sharing any further details on the specific funds involved in the investment at this time.
Mercedes is ramping up its EQ line of electric vehicles as another pillar of its model range, just as it has with its AMG line of performance vehicles and the Maybach sub brand of ultra luxury automobiles. So far it #39;s only rolled out the EQC, but it #39;s promised more to come. And now we know what will be next.The German automaker recently released this teaser image clearly showing (at least in profile) the upcoming EQA. The new model "will be presented in 2020, " slotting in below the EQC and confirmed to be closely based on the new Mercedes Benz GLA just revealed.
To prepare for the holiday season, Nissan outfitted the Leaf with thousands of multicoloured lights, as well as a tree and reindeer perched on the roof Image Credit: Supplied Nissan is clearly set for the holiday season and in the Christmas spirit judging by this Leaf which has been decorated with thousands of LEDs, shimmery baubles, a reindeer and a tree Its V Motion grille has its own string light while the wheels get snowflake lights too.But if you thought the display was just for fun and games, think again; the lights all over the electric car are actually powered by the Leaf itself Nissan is trying to showcase the vehicle s energy saving and regenerative abilities and it sure is working. Sure, every December carmakers tend to release themed vehicles and join in in the festive cheer but Nissan has raised the bar with this little PR stunt which doesn t just make the car more fun but it also drives home a very important message.
Key point: For the time being, the MLRS still provides an effective rocket system for U.S. armored units. On February 24, 1991, the ground phase of Operation Desert Storm began. Over the next four days, the soldiers of an international coalition, formed to eject the Iraqi army of Saddam Hussein from the neighboring nation of Kuwait, carried out a whirlwind offensive that quickly overwhelmed their foe. During this time, tens of thousands of Iraqi soldiers were taken prisoner. Many of them, arms thrust upward in a sign of surrender, said one thing when they were taken into custody: No more steel rain. For weeks before the ground attack, these men had been systematically pummeled by the entire range of weaponry available to their opponents B 52 bombing strikes, air attacks using tons of precision smart weapons, plus many more thousands of tons of traditional unguided bombs and rockets. Added to this was the close air support of fighter bomber aircraft and attack helicopters. Artillery barrages dropped down on them by the dozens and hundreds, adding yet another level to the pounding they received. The cries of no more steel rain applied to none of these, however. Instead, it was the nickname of a deadly new artillery weapon seeing its debut in combat: the M270 Multiple Launch Rocket System, or MLRS. Batteries of these weapons had been deployed to the Gulf with U.S. and British forces, who used them to blanket their target areas with hundreds of rockets releasing thousands of explosive submunitions, or bomblets, that devastated armored vehicles, trucks, equipment, and men. Volleys of rockets pounded the hapless Iraqi troops and paved the way for the sweeping infantry and armor assaults that followed. The MLRS proved itself alongside such other late Cold War weapons as the M1 Abrams tank, M2 Bradley Fighting Vehicle, and AH64 Apache helicopter. Like these weapons, the MLRS had its origins in the 1970s development programs of the post Vietnam era. The MLRS Concept Takes Shape During the late 1960s and early 1970s, America s involvement in the Vietnam War drew most of the focus away from the traditional enemies of the time, the Soviet Union and its Warsaw Pact allies. As the United States gradually withdrew from the conflict in Asia, its attention once again returned to Eastern Europe, and the U.S. Army was not happy encountering the Russians new claws. The Soviets had taken advantage of America s distraction to build up its conventional forces to unprecedented levels. The Warsaw Pact now sat across the Iron Curtain with tens of thousands of new tanks, armored vehicles, cannons, and rocket artillery pieces. Artillery had always weighed heavily in Soviet planning, and they now had new, longer ranged cannons than most comparable American weapons. The disparity in rocket artillery was even more one sided. Soviet tactics used barrages of thousands of rockets fired from truck mounted multiple rocket launchers (MRLs) such as the BM 21. American artillery was only scantily supplied with rocket launchers, many of them left over from World War II. With some exceptions, U.S. planners heavily favored cannon artillery, primarily for its relative accuracy. Rockets at that time were considered area fire weapons; that is, they were fired en masse at an area of ground where the enemy was thought to be, rather than at a point target such as a bunker or trenchline. Existing rockets simply were not accurate enough for such pinpoint work, although they packed quite a punch and tended to have a terrifying psychological effect on the enemy. The Soviets were willing to saturate a target area with rockets, figuring that some, at least, would find their mark. For American artillerists, weaned on the concepts of accuracy and economy of expenditure in ammunition, large scale use of indiscriminate rockets simply was not palatable. A number of occurrences changed that mindset. In 1973, the Arab Israeli War broke out. Attrition rates in that conflict were far higher than expected, greater than any possible rate of replacement for lost armor and aircraft. One of the more effective Israeli tactics had been to hit enemy Surface to Air Missile (SAM) sites with MRLs. The American military establishment noted this. It also noted that in the event of war in Europe, NATO would have to fight outnumbered against a well equipped enemy in intense, destructive combat. After long debate, the U.S. Army finally wrote a requirement for a new rocket launcher in March 1974, calling it the GSRS, or General Support Rocket System. It would be used to engage enemy air defenses and for counterbattery fire, neutralizing opposing artillery. The new launcher would have long range and massive firepower, freeing the cannon units to provide close support to the infantry and armor. Several NATO allies, including the United Kingdom, France, and West Germany, were consulted and agreed to collaborate on the project. Since the Europeans already had looked at a similar system independently, their name was adopted, changing GSRS to MLRS. Design and Development Actual development began in September 1977, undertaken by the Boeing and Vought Aerospace companies, which beat out three other competitors for the contract. Development continued into the 1980s and eventually became the highest priority for the Field Artillery School, which considered it the Army s most spectacular new weapons system. After initial testing proved successful, the MLRS was adopted, with the first production models, designated M270, arriving at Fort Sill, Oklahoma, in August 1982. The first operational battery of M270s was formed in March 1983, and the new unit was sent to West Germany the following September. These batteries were composed of three platoons of three launchers each, a total of nine launchers per battery. By 1987, 25 such batteries were in service. The basic M270 was a self propelled armored vehicle that mated two main subcomponents: the Launcher Loader Module (LLM) containing the rocket pods and the hardware needed to load and unload them and the carrier vehicle, essentially an enlarged version of the Bradley Fighting Vehicle chassis. The vehicle was not quite 23 feet long, 9.5 feet wide, and 8.5 feet high. It weighed 52,990 pounds ready for combat. The three man crew sat in a cab above the engine compartment. This cab was armored to protect against small arms fire and artillery fragments. The engine was a Cummins 8 cylinder diesel developing 500 horsepower for a top speed of 40 miles per hour and a range of 483 kilometers. Directly behind the cab was the LLM, which carried two pods of six rockets each, one next to the other. For firing, the LLM raised and rotated to point to the vehicle s side. It could fire single rockets or any number up to its full load of 12 within 60 seconds. The crew consisted of a crew chief, gunner, and driver. The crew chief commanded the vehicle, oversaw firing operations, and performed checks of the other two crewmen. The gunner operated a firing panel to aim and fire the rockets at selected targets. The M270 s computer calculated the data for the rocket s direction of fire, point of impact, and range; these calculations were based on information received digitally via radio or entered manually by the gunner. The driver operated the M270 and performed maintenance. The heart and purpose of the M270 were its munitions. The basic rocket was the M26, with a range of 32 kilometers. It carried 644 grenade sized submunitions. A single M270 could blanket a 600 square meter area with 7,728 bomblets, devastating to men, material, and light vehicles, with a limited effect on armored vehicles. One battery of MLRS firing a complete volley of 108 rockets had the equivalent firepower of 33 battalions of cannon artillery. These rockets were packaged in pods of six rounds each. Rockets were only part of the picture, however. The M270 also fired the M39 Army Tactical Missile System (ATACMS) missile, each launcher carrying two missiles in place of the normal 12 rockets. The ATACMS carried 950 bomblets and had a range of 165 kilometers, giving MLRS the ability to range deep in enemy territory, hitting command posts, logistics depots, air defenses, and assembly areas for advancing units. ATACMS started development in 1985 and was rushed into service for Desert Storm. The MLRS Doctrine The doctrine for the use of MLRS sought to take advantage of its mobility and firepower. To avoid the expected Soviet counterbattery fire, M270s would spread out individually and hide themselves until needed for a mission. The launcher would then move to a firing position, launch its rockets, and immediately move away, hopefully before the Soviets could calculate the launch point using radar and fire on it. The M270 crew would then proceed to a reloading point, load fresh rocket pods, and move to a completely new hiding position near a different firing point. This would prevent the enemy from destroying the valuable launchers as they poured volley after volley into the advancing Soviet armored hordes. Fortunately for all concerned, such combat never happened before the Cold War came to an end. Instead, the MLRS would be called upon in the deserts of the Middle East. When the Iraqi Army conquered Kuwait in 1990, hundreds of thousands of American troops were sent to Saudi Arabia, first to defend against further Iraqi aggression and then to free Kuwait from its occupiers. They took with them 89 MLRS launchers. The baptism of fire for the M270 came on January 17, 1991. That day, Battery A of the 6th Battalion, 27th Field Artillery was traveling west on a highway called Tapline Road, en route to an assembly area. At 1620 hours, an order came to fire its ATACMS missiles at SAM sites that posed a danger to planned B 52 air strikes. Although it took several hours to coordinate clear airspace for the missile s trajectories, at 0042 on January 18, two missiles roared from their launchers, destroying both SAM sites. Battery A fired six more missiles that day targeting more of the Iraqi air defense network. 1 2 Next View the discussion thread. copy; Copyright 2019 Center for the National Interest All Rights Reserved
ISRO was initially called the Indian National Committee for Space Research and was put together during the time of Jawaharlal Nehru under the Department of Atomic Energy back in 1962. Pushed by Vikram Sarabhai with the idea of space research, INCOSPAR expanded and became ISRO in 1969, under the DAE. Then in 1972, the Indian government setup a Space Commission and also a Department of Space (DOS) which the Indian Space Research Organisation came under.Three years later, India''s first satellite Aryabhatta named after the famous mathematician was launched by the erstwhile Soviet Union in 1975. In 1980, ISRO launched the Rohini satellite using the SLV 3 which was made in India. There were two other launch vehicles Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) for placing satellites into polar orbits. The other one was called the GSLV Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle used for placing the satellite in geostationary orbit.
Ford Motor Company (F) is planning to invest over $1.45 billion in its two North American facilities in Michigan. The investment will focus on building autonomous, electric, and big vehicles such as trucks and SUVs. According to the company s December 17 press release, the investment will create 3,000 jobs over the next three years.The larger portion of its planned investment will go toward its manufacturing facility in Wayne, Michigan. Ford says it will invest nearly $750 million in the facility and will add 2,700 jobs over the next three years. The investment will focus on installing new equipment to help build an all new Bronco SUV and Ranger small pickup truck.
PinterestTwitterFacebookPinterestTwitterThe year that is soon to end will be noted in the annals of automotive history as a moment when the electric car finally started to catch on in the U.S. This year, for the first time, a host of mainstream and luxury automakers brought their strengths to the development and introduction of battery powered vehicles. Sales were not overwhelming electric vehicles (EVs) still have a host of issues to overcome in the minds of many consumers, mainly the fear that 200 miles of range will not be enough for them to complete whatever outlier once a year task they may one day need to complete. However, EVs were about 2% of the overall market, nearly triple of what sales were just five years ago. Things are shifting. (Speaking of shifting, more people bought EVs than bought cars with manual transmissions.)
The automotive pricing and sales data specialist found that pure electric vehicles were the most in demand products currently on the market, selling an average of five days faster than a petrol hybrid, six days faster than a diesel car, nine days faster than a petrol car and 14 days faster than a diesel hybrid.The average selling price of a pure EV is pound;19,000, meanwhile pound;3,000 more than the average diesel vehicle and pound;7,000 more than petrol.
New Delhi: Tata Motors Ltd, India s largest vehicle maker, is in initial talks with a couple of Chinese automobile companies for a tie up for its passenger vehicles business, three people aware of the development said.These companies may either invest directly in Tata Motors or form a joint venture, the people said, requesting anonymity. Mint could not independently verify the names of the two companies. The collaboration could include joint development of technologies related to electric mobility, sharing of manufacturing capacities, development of engines and platforms and other aspects of the business, they said.
A BMW spokesman revealed the news about the i3 to German newspaper Leipziger Volkszeitung. When the i3 debuted in 2014, it was a ground breaking electric car, but now it;s been overshadowed by more affordable electric vehicles that also have a longer driving range.Since its introduction, BMW has continued to update the i3 to give it a longer driving range. Right now the i3 can travel up to 153 miles if you choose the fully electric version, while the i3 with the Range Extender can travel up to 200 miles. With those specs, the i3 is clearly behind several EVs, like the Tesla Model 3 and Chevy Bolt.
Key point: A true turning point in the war against the Nazis. January 1945 with World War II in its sixth year found the Allied armies going on the offensive after the Battle of the Bulge, but they were still west of the Rhine and six weeks behind schedule in their advance toward Germany. Closing to the Rhine was not easy. Although U.S. and French units of Lt. Gen. Jacob L. Devers Sixth Army Group had reached the western bank around Strasbourg in late 1944, the river proved too difficult to cross. Even if an assault could have been mounted, the Allied forces would have been too far away from the heart of Germany to pose any meaningful threat. The key to eventual victory lay in the central and northern Rhineland, but three factors delayed an advance: the failure of Operation Market Garden, the British American airborne invasion of Holland, the onset of an extremely wet autumn and harsh winter, and the unexpectedly rapid recovery of the German Army in the wake of recent Allied advances. A coordinated Allied campaign proved difficult to achieve. General Omar N. Bradley s U.S. 12th Army Group was licking its wounds after the almost disastrous Ardennes counteroffensive, and it was clear to Field Marshal Bernard L. Montgomery, commander of the British 21st Army Group, that the Americans would not be ready to undertake a major offensive for some time. Despite its vast reserve of manpower, unlike the critically depleted British Army, the U.S. Army had become seriously deficient of infantry replacements. Monty made the first move. Meanwhile, on January 12, the Soviet Army launched a long awaited, massive offensive from Warsaw toward the River Oder and Berlin. This was just in time, thought Montgomery and General Dwight D. Ike Eisenhower, the Allied supreme commander. By the end of the month, the Russians were only 50 miles from the German capital. While the Americans were recovering, it devolved on the 21st Army Group, still supported by Lt. Gen. William H. Texas Bill Simpson s U.S. Ninth Army, to take over the battle as soon as winter loosened its grip. Monty and Ike agreed that the next stage should be to break through the Germans formidable Siegfried Line and close up to the left bank of the Rhine. The main objective was the historic city of Wesel, on the opposite side of the great river in flat country just north of the Ruhr Valley. It was here that Montgomery had originally sought to seize a bridgehead in September 1944, and common sense still favored it. Accordingly, two well knit, almost copybook offensives were planned for February 8, 1945: Operation Veritable on the left flank and Operation Grenade on the right, adjacent to the boundary with Bradley s 12th Army Group. Monty announced that the 21st Army Group s task was to destroy all enemy in the area west of the Rhine from the present forward positions south of Nijmegen (Holland) as far south as the general line Julich Dusseldorf, as a preliminary to crossing the Rhine and engaging the enemy in mobile war to the north of the Ruhr. Three armies would be involved in the offensives: the Canadian First, the British Second, and the U.S. Ninth. Commanding the Canadian force was the distinguished, 57 year old General Henry D.G. Harry Crerar, a World War I artillery veteran and a man of cool judgment and cold nerves. The ration strength of his First Army exceeded 470,000 men, and no Canadian had ever led such a large force. The British Second Army was led by the skilled, unassuming Lt. Gen. Sir Miles Bimbo Dempsey, a 48 year old World War I veteran of the Western Front and Iraq who later acquitted himself well in the Dunkirk evacuation, the Western Desert, Sicily, Italy, and Normandy. Tall, bald, Texas born General Simpson, commanding 300,000 men of the U.S. Ninth Army, had served in the Philippine Insurrection, the 1916 Mexico punitive expedition, and on the Western Front in 1918. Eisenhower said of the 56 year old officer, If Simpson ever made a mistake as an Army commander, it never came to my attention. With 11 divisions and nine independent brigades, the Canadian Army would clear the way in February 1945 up to the town of Xanten; the Ninth Army, with 10 divisions in three corps, would cross the Roer River and move northward to Dusseldorf (Operation Grenade), and the four divisions of the Second Army would attack in the center. Although he was in customary high spirits about the operation, Montgomery knew that it would be no cakewalk. I visited the Veritable area today, he warned Field Marshal Sir Alan Brooke, chief of the Imperial General Staff, on February 6. The ground is very wet, and roads and tracks are breaking up, and these factors are likely to make progress somewhat slow after the operation is launched. Besides expected opposition from at least 10 well entrenched Wehrmacht divisions, the Allied troops would have to face minefields, flooded rivers and terrain, a lack of roads, appalling weather, and tough going in the gloomy, tangled Reichswald and Hochwald forests. Montgomery won final approval for the great dual assault on the Rhine on February 1, and the preparations were hastily finalized under tight security. Strict blackout regulations were enforced, and a cover story was concocted to convince the enemy that the offensive would be in a northerly direction to liberate Holland, rather than an eastern thrust into Germany. Daytime gatherings of troops were forbidden unless under cover; large concentrations of vehicles, weapons, and ammunition were camouflaged or concealed in farmyards, barns, and haystacks, and rubber dummies of tanks and artillery pieces were positioned along an imaginary battle line where they might attract the attention of enemy patrols. Logistical feats were accomplished speedily as thousands of men, vehicles, and equipment were transported to the forward assembly lines. The British and Canadian soldiers worked around the clock. Sappers built and improved 100 miles of road using 20,000 tons of stones, 20,000 logs, and 30,000 pickets, and 446 freight trains hauled 250,000 tons of equipment and supplies to the railheads. It was estimated that the ammunition alone all types, stacked side by side and five feet high would line the road for 30 miles. Engineers constructed five bridges across the River Maas, using 1,880 tons of equipment. The biggest was a 1,280 foot long British designed Bailey bridge. Outside Nijmegen, an airfield was laid in five days for British and Canadian rocket firing Hawker Typhoons, which would support the offensive. Meanwhile, a formidable array of armor and specialized vehicles was assembled. It included Churchill, Cromwell, Centaur, Comet, Valentine, and Sherman heavy and medium tanks; Bren gun carriers, jeeps, half tracks, and armored cars; amphibious Weasel, Buffalo, and DUKW cargo and personnel carriers; and 11 regiments of Hobart s Funnies, Churchills and Shermans fitted with antimine flails, flamethrowers, and bridging equipment. Invented by Maj. Gen. Sir Percy Hobart, these had proved invaluable in the Normandy invasion and the clearing of the flooded Scheldt Estuary by Crerar s army. Under the command of the Canadian First Army, the Veritable offensive was to be spearheaded by the seasoned British XXX Corps led by 49 year old Lt. Gen. Sir Brian G. Horrocks. He returned from leave in England to plunge into preparations for the largest operation he had ever undertaken. A much wounded veteran of Ypres, Siberia, El Alamein, Tunisia, Normandy, and Belgium, the tall, lithe Horrocks nicknamed Jorrocks by his mentor, Montgomery was a charismatic officer who led from the front and was regarded as one of the finest corps commanders of the war. Horrocks regarded Monty s overall plan for the offensive as simplicity itself. The XXX Corps was to attack in a southerly direction from the Nijmegen area with its right on the River Maas and its left on the Rhine. Forty eight hours later, said Horrocks, our old friends, General Simpson s U.S. Ninth Army, were to cross the River Roer and advance north to meet us. The German forces would thus be caught in a vise and be faced with the alternatives, either to fight it out west of the Rhine or to withdraw over the Rhine and then be prepared to launch counterattacks when we ourselves subsequently attempted to cross . In theory, this looked like a comparatively simple operation, but all battles have their problems, and in this case the initial assault would have to smash through a bottleneck well suited to defense and consisting in part of the famous Siegfried Line. Horrocks decided to use the maximum force possible and open Operation Veritable with five divisions, from right to left, in line: the 51st Highland, 53rd Welsh, 15th Scottish, and the 2nd and 3rd Canadian, followed by the 43rd Wessex and Maj. Gen. Sir Alan Adair s proud Guards Armored Division. On the morning of February 4, Horrocks briefed his commanders in the packed cinema in the southern Dutch town of Tilburg. Clad in brown corduroy trousers and a battlefield jacket, the unpretentious general drew a warm response as he crisply outlined the offensive, radiated confidence, and moved from group to group with a friendly and humorous word. Like Montgomery, he made a practice of keeping all ranks informed about operations. 1 2 3 4 Next View the discussion thread. copy; Copyright 2019 Center for the National Interest All Rights Reserved