Salka Viertel was a recently naturalized American when Hitler ''s war began, having arrived from Berlin on a visitor visa in Hollywood with her husband during one of the earlier waves of emigrating filmmakers, in 1928. She became a proud and grateful U.S. citizen in February of 1939, only months before the official outbreak of war in Europe on Sept. 1 of that year. It was her very Europeanness that had alerted her early on to the growing conflagration across the Atlantic, well before Hitler took power in 1933. She had been raised in a well heeled Jewish family in a garrison town in Galicia called Sambor, on the fringes of the Austro Hungarian Empire, where she 'd been born in 1889. And she came of age as an actress on the stages of many European cities, most notably Weimar era Berlin. Long before the advent of National Socialism made anti Semitism official state policy in Germany, Salka Viertel was quite familiar with its lethal intentions. Thus after 1933 she was extra sympathetic to the attempts of the panicked human beings who began to launch themselves desperately, in any way they could, toward the possibility of safety in America.An estimated ten thousand refugees from Germany and Austria settled in greater Los Angeles between 1933 and 1941, a significant part of ”the most complete migration of artists and intellectuals in European history ” up to that time, according to California historian Kevin Starr. Members of Salka Viertel ''s own family were among those refugees, as were hundreds of her friends and many more strangers. In Santa Monica, she made it her mission to provide a refuge for them in her own home and to absorb them into her social and professional network, all to help them survive in a wholly unfamiliar new world.
"Winning elections isn''t a good enough reason for highlighting differences between us. My naive view of the world tells me that creating opportunities through liberalisation and openness and togetherness could win more elections," Bhogle wrote in his Facebook post."This is a great time to be a benevolent government; to think of education, of infrastructure, of technology; to remove barriers, to embrace openness, to free this beautiful generation to take India beyond where we think it can be," he added in a lengthy post.
A widely shared image is an authentic photograph that shows a Hanukkah menorah displayed in the home of a Jewish family in Nazi Germany in 1932. In late December 2019, during the Jewish festival of Hanukkah, readers asked us about the authenticity and provenance of a stirring, powerful photograph. The picture appeared to show a menorah, which plays a central role in Hanukkah rituals, displayed in the window of a home with a Nazi swastika flag flew ominously across the street. The picture was shared several times on social media in the final week of December, during which the eight day festival of lights fell in 2019:
Politics20 hours agoGuwahati: Voicing his strong opposition against the amended Citizenship Act, former Assam chief minister and senior AGP leader Prafulla Kumar Mahanta on Sunday said India is moving in the same direction as that of "Hitler ''s Nazi Germany ".
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Now empty, dank, and graffitied, these weathered concrete blockhouses are nevertheless worth a visit for any history, architecture, or photography buff. They also form a wondrous hide and seek playground for older children visiting the beach.And if you visit after dark, the bunkers provide the perfect platform from which to almost touch the profusion of stars in the heavens over the North Sea of Denmark.
Key point: A true turning point in the war against the Nazis. January 1945 with World War II in its sixth year found the Allied armies going on the offensive after the Battle of the Bulge, but they were still west of the Rhine and six weeks behind schedule in their advance toward Germany. Closing to the Rhine was not easy. Although U.S. and French units of Lt. Gen. Jacob L. Devers Sixth Army Group had reached the western bank around Strasbourg in late 1944, the river proved too difficult to cross. Even if an assault could have been mounted, the Allied forces would have been too far away from the heart of Germany to pose any meaningful threat. The key to eventual victory lay in the central and northern Rhineland, but three factors delayed an advance: the failure of Operation Market Garden, the British American airborne invasion of Holland, the onset of an extremely wet autumn and harsh winter, and the unexpectedly rapid recovery of the German Army in the wake of recent Allied advances. A coordinated Allied campaign proved difficult to achieve. General Omar N. Bradley s U.S. 12th Army Group was licking its wounds after the almost disastrous Ardennes counteroffensive, and it was clear to Field Marshal Bernard L. Montgomery, commander of the British 21st Army Group, that the Americans would not be ready to undertake a major offensive for some time. Despite its vast reserve of manpower, unlike the critically depleted British Army, the U.S. Army had become seriously deficient of infantry replacements. Monty made the first move. Meanwhile, on January 12, the Soviet Army launched a long awaited, massive offensive from Warsaw toward the River Oder and Berlin. This was just in time, thought Montgomery and General Dwight D. Ike Eisenhower, the Allied supreme commander. By the end of the month, the Russians were only 50 miles from the German capital. While the Americans were recovering, it devolved on the 21st Army Group, still supported by Lt. Gen. William H. Texas Bill Simpson s U.S. Ninth Army, to take over the battle as soon as winter loosened its grip. Monty and Ike agreed that the next stage should be to break through the Germans formidable Siegfried Line and close up to the left bank of the Rhine. The main objective was the historic city of Wesel, on the opposite side of the great river in flat country just north of the Ruhr Valley. It was here that Montgomery had originally sought to seize a bridgehead in September 1944, and common sense still favored it. Accordingly, two well knit, almost copybook offensives were planned for February 8, 1945: Operation Veritable on the left flank and Operation Grenade on the right, adjacent to the boundary with Bradley s 12th Army Group. Monty announced that the 21st Army Group s task was to destroy all enemy in the area west of the Rhine from the present forward positions south of Nijmegen (Holland) as far south as the general line Julich Dusseldorf, as a preliminary to crossing the Rhine and engaging the enemy in mobile war to the north of the Ruhr. Three armies would be involved in the offensives: the Canadian First, the British Second, and the U.S. Ninth. Commanding the Canadian force was the distinguished, 57 year old General Henry D.G. Harry Crerar, a World War I artillery veteran and a man of cool judgment and cold nerves. The ration strength of his First Army exceeded 470,000 men, and no Canadian had ever led such a large force. The British Second Army was led by the skilled, unassuming Lt. Gen. Sir Miles Bimbo Dempsey, a 48 year old World War I veteran of the Western Front and Iraq who later acquitted himself well in the Dunkirk evacuation, the Western Desert, Sicily, Italy, and Normandy. Tall, bald, Texas born General Simpson, commanding 300,000 men of the U.S. Ninth Army, had served in the Philippine Insurrection, the 1916 Mexico punitive expedition, and on the Western Front in 1918. Eisenhower said of the 56 year old officer, If Simpson ever made a mistake as an Army commander, it never came to my attention. With 11 divisions and nine independent brigades, the Canadian Army would clear the way in February 1945 up to the town of Xanten; the Ninth Army, with 10 divisions in three corps, would cross the Roer River and move northward to Dusseldorf (Operation Grenade), and the four divisions of the Second Army would attack in the center. Although he was in customary high spirits about the operation, Montgomery knew that it would be no cakewalk. I visited the Veritable area today, he warned Field Marshal Sir Alan Brooke, chief of the Imperial General Staff, on February 6. The ground is very wet, and roads and tracks are breaking up, and these factors are likely to make progress somewhat slow after the operation is launched. Besides expected opposition from at least 10 well entrenched Wehrmacht divisions, the Allied troops would have to face minefields, flooded rivers and terrain, a lack of roads, appalling weather, and tough going in the gloomy, tangled Reichswald and Hochwald forests. Montgomery won final approval for the great dual assault on the Rhine on February 1, and the preparations were hastily finalized under tight security. Strict blackout regulations were enforced, and a cover story was concocted to convince the enemy that the offensive would be in a northerly direction to liberate Holland, rather than an eastern thrust into Germany. Daytime gatherings of troops were forbidden unless under cover; large concentrations of vehicles, weapons, and ammunition were camouflaged or concealed in farmyards, barns, and haystacks, and rubber dummies of tanks and artillery pieces were positioned along an imaginary battle line where they might attract the attention of enemy patrols. Logistical feats were accomplished speedily as thousands of men, vehicles, and equipment were transported to the forward assembly lines. The British and Canadian soldiers worked around the clock. Sappers built and improved 100 miles of road using 20,000 tons of stones, 20,000 logs, and 30,000 pickets, and 446 freight trains hauled 250,000 tons of equipment and supplies to the railheads. It was estimated that the ammunition alone all types, stacked side by side and five feet high would line the road for 30 miles. Engineers constructed five bridges across the River Maas, using 1,880 tons of equipment. The biggest was a 1,280 foot long British designed Bailey bridge. Outside Nijmegen, an airfield was laid in five days for British and Canadian rocket firing Hawker Typhoons, which would support the offensive. Meanwhile, a formidable array of armor and specialized vehicles was assembled. It included Churchill, Cromwell, Centaur, Comet, Valentine, and Sherman heavy and medium tanks; Bren gun carriers, jeeps, half tracks, and armored cars; amphibious Weasel, Buffalo, and DUKW cargo and personnel carriers; and 11 regiments of Hobart s Funnies, Churchills and Shermans fitted with antimine flails, flamethrowers, and bridging equipment. Invented by Maj. Gen. Sir Percy Hobart, these had proved invaluable in the Normandy invasion and the clearing of the flooded Scheldt Estuary by Crerar s army. Under the command of the Canadian First Army, the Veritable offensive was to be spearheaded by the seasoned British XXX Corps led by 49 year old Lt. Gen. Sir Brian G. Horrocks. He returned from leave in England to plunge into preparations for the largest operation he had ever undertaken. A much wounded veteran of Ypres, Siberia, El Alamein, Tunisia, Normandy, and Belgium, the tall, lithe Horrocks nicknamed Jorrocks by his mentor, Montgomery was a charismatic officer who led from the front and was regarded as one of the finest corps commanders of the war. Horrocks regarded Monty s overall plan for the offensive as simplicity itself. The XXX Corps was to attack in a southerly direction from the Nijmegen area with its right on the River Maas and its left on the Rhine. Forty eight hours later, said Horrocks, our old friends, General Simpson s U.S. Ninth Army, were to cross the River Roer and advance north to meet us. The German forces would thus be caught in a vise and be faced with the alternatives, either to fight it out west of the Rhine or to withdraw over the Rhine and then be prepared to launch counterattacks when we ourselves subsequently attempted to cross . In theory, this looked like a comparatively simple operation, but all battles have their problems, and in this case the initial assault would have to smash through a bottleneck well suited to defense and consisting in part of the famous Siegfried Line. Horrocks decided to use the maximum force possible and open Operation Veritable with five divisions, from right to left, in line: the 51st Highland, 53rd Welsh, 15th Scottish, and the 2nd and 3rd Canadian, followed by the 43rd Wessex and Maj. Gen. Sir Alan Adair s proud Guards Armored Division. On the morning of February 4, Horrocks briefed his commanders in the packed cinema in the southern Dutch town of Tilburg. Clad in brown corduroy trousers and a battlefield jacket, the unpretentious general drew a warm response as he crisply outlined the offensive, radiated confidence, and moved from group to group with a friendly and humorous word. Like Montgomery, he made a practice of keeping all ranks informed about operations. 1 2 3 4 Next View the discussion thread. copy; Copyright 2019 Center for the National Interest All Rights Reserved
Parallels with Hitler Germany cited Trinamul Congress and Congress leaders, opposing the grant of citizenship by religion, on Wednesday sought to draw a parallel between the Narendra Modi government and Germany under the Nazis.
He came under shell fire from the Nazis, and survived the Battle of the Bulge before taking part in the Allies victory parade in Berlin in 1945. And now this battered 4ft bear has added to his remarkable Second World War history by fetching 4,000 at auction 10 times the expected price.
Members of the Alternative fur Deutschland (AfD) party have said there should be less apology for Germany;s Nazi past and other periods of its history should be celebrated instead. German Chancellor Angela Merkel walks in front of the main railway entrance to Birkenau as she visits the former German Nazi death camp Auschwitz Birkenau in Oswiecim, Poland on December 6, 2019. (John MacDougall AFP) Nothing can bring back the people who were murdered here. Nothing can reverse the unprecedented crimes committed here. These crimes are and will remain part of German history and this history must be told over and over again, she said. ;Remembering the crimes ... is a responsibility which never ends. It belongs inseparably to our country,; Merkel said. ;To be aware of this responsibility is part of our national identity, our self understanding as an enlightened and free society, a democracy with rule of law,; she said. Merkel said Auschwitz ;demands that we keep the memory alive;. She expressed Germany;s enduring ;deep shame in the face of the barbaric crimes committed by Germans here; in Auschwitz Birkenau, where a million Jews lost their lives between 1940 and 1945. ;There are no words to express our sorrow,; she said. German Chancellor Angela Merkel commemorates in front of the death wall during a wreath laying ceremony in the former Nazi death camp of Auschwitz Birkenau in Oswiecim, Germany, Friday, Dec. 6, 2019. Merkel attend an event in occasion of the 10th anniversary of the founding of the Auschwitz Foundation. (Photo Markus Schreiber via AP) Addressing Holocaust survivors present, she added: ;I bow my head before the victims of the Shoah.;The chancellor also addressed a rise of anti Semitic and other hate crimes in Germany in recent years, saying they had reached an "alarming level ".