A number of Female officers demanded commanding posts after getting a permanent commission. Their plea, however, has been opposed citing #8216;greater family demands; and the danger of them being taken in as prisoners of war. The composition of rank amp; file being male, and predominantly male drawn from rural background, with prevailing societal norms, the troops are not yet mentally schooled to accept women officers in command , the Centre said in an affidavit that essentially discriminates women in official policy.
In the pantheon of American military commanders, Curtis LeMay stands out as one of the more controversial individuals. His gruff, no nonsense, yet pragmatic approaches to strategic bombardment and airpower leave most people either admiring his aptitude or loathing his methods. The author of the Japanese fire raids in the closing months of World War II, LeMay s actions provide one of the clearest examples of total war and unrestricted bombing. His ability to get the most out of his command became a hallmark of his leadership acumen. General Curtis LeMay (A.Y. Owen Getty) With the dropping of the atomic weapons from strategic bombers, many believed warfare had entered a new age rendering conventional military operations obsolete or at least a very distant secondary to air centric campaigns. Subscribing to this new vision, LeMay took charge of Strategic Air Command (SAC) in 1948 and served as its commander for an unprecedented nine years until 1957. During this time, he oversaw Strategic Air Command s growth not only in terms of size and numbers but also in increased lethality and capability. Commanding the most destructive military force ever assembled, LeMay functioned as the catalyst and the fulcrum, which made Strategic Air Command a primary symbol of American military might. With this view of the future, LeMay calculated that the very nature of warfare in the atomic age had to be based on offensive actions with no room for defensively based policies. Trevor Albertson s Winning Armageddon addresses how and why LeMay viewed an atomic preemptive attack as a viable strategy in the emerging Cold War environment. Following the war, a new paradigm developed, which argued the initiator of an atomic aerial assault had a distinct advantage over the defender or a retaliatory strike. Fearing Strategic Air Command s fleet of bombers might be caught on the ground and vulnerable to a Soviet attack, LeMay believed the same risk existed regarding American national infrastructure and its cities. Given this possibility, LeMay insisted the only good defense was a good offense. However, LeMay fortunately failed to convince the nation s leadership to change the stated policy regarding nuclear weapons. In this vein, Albertson s main argument addresses LeMay s quest for a preemptive attack policy and his advocacy of it to the nation s leadership. In this vein, the author comprehensively addresses the Strategic Air Command commander s push for preemption despite resistance from other elements of the defense establishment and the Federal government. From LeMay s cold warrior perspective, a preemptive policy was the only viable method to ensure Strategic Air Command s combat capability while guaranteeing the nation s safety before the Soviets possibly destroyed them both, most worryingly in a kind of surprise attack akin to Pearl Harbor. Albertson, a former Air Force intelligence officer and former Air Command and Staff College instructor, demonstrates a full understanding of Strategic Air Command, the Air Force, and their roles in the early cold war years in the work s 227 pages. His technical discussion in five well constructed chapters makes for not only a fast read, but an entertaining one. With well annotated endnotes and extensive bibliography, Alberston shows a mastery of the topic only a few academics in this field can match. The work is largely a collection of the Strategic Air Command commander s actions and words encouraging a preemptive policy in both public and classified venues. Loaded with quotes, speeches, and references by LeMay advocating this policy, the author makes a clear and well documented assessment of the Strategic Air Command commander s viewpoint regarding nuclear preemption. Using primary source material, Albertson sets a high bar for works of this nature. Instead of using well trodden secondary sources, the author dug extensively in various archives to support his argument. Albertson also provides new insights into LeMay s offensive mindset. While addressing LeMay s strategic imperative, the author also delves into his effective leadership focusing on troop welfare, quality of life, and realistic training a point many treatises on LeMay fail to address. LeMay consistently demonstrated his concern for the people in his command even if it was only a way to increase performance. Albertson does a credible job of addressing what some might see as the Strategic Air Command commander s use of a softer side to foster the best performance possible. As the book addresses LeMay s advocacy for preemptive strategy almost singularly, the detour regarding troop welfare initiatives is a welcome addition. Given the work s focus on LeMay s push for a preemptive strategy, the author might have addressed more of the challenges Strategic Air Command faced early under LeMay s tenure. When LeMay took over in October 1948, the command lacked much of an atomic capability. Although the book subtly hints via the subtitle this is a treatise of the command, a discussion regarding the development of Strategic Air Command s capability quickly falls to the wayside. Instead, the book maintains its focus on preemption and LeMay s drive for its acceptance. While the author mentions this in his preface, the singular thrust regarding preemption omits discussion of the myriad of problems LeMay had to fix in addition to troop morale. Early on, Strategic Air Command suffered from a lack of ready airframes, maintenance efforts, training, and competence at almost every level. Inclusion of these efforts might have underscored and even highlighted LeMay s efforts to build a preemptive capable force. Despite this omission, the book is an excellent contribution to the historiography of the early Cold War, Strategic Air Command, and LeMay, making it a must for any student of the cold war. Albertson helps provide more insight into Strategic Air Command leadership during LeMay s tenure while illustrating the commander s thought process and quiet, yet aggressive, style of leadership. The author s excellent use of primary sources adroitly illustrate his thesis and fills a void in the current historiography. The book is a worthy and needed addition to the current historiography regarding the Cold War and strategic nuclear bombardment. John M. Curatola is a professor of history at the U.S. Army School of Advanced Military Studies. The views expressed in this article are the author s alone and do not reflect the official position of the U.S. Army, the Department of Defense, or the U.S. Government. This article first appeared at Real Clear Defense. Image: Flickr. View the discussion thread. copy; Copyright 2019 Center for the National Interest All Rights Reserved
Key point: A true turning point in the war against the Nazis. January 1945 with World War II in its sixth year found the Allied armies going on the offensive after the Battle of the Bulge, but they were still west of the Rhine and six weeks behind schedule in their advance toward Germany. Closing to the Rhine was not easy. Although U.S. and French units of Lt. Gen. Jacob L. Devers Sixth Army Group had reached the western bank around Strasbourg in late 1944, the river proved too difficult to cross. Even if an assault could have been mounted, the Allied forces would have been too far away from the heart of Germany to pose any meaningful threat. The key to eventual victory lay in the central and northern Rhineland, but three factors delayed an advance: the failure of Operation Market Garden, the British American airborne invasion of Holland, the onset of an extremely wet autumn and harsh winter, and the unexpectedly rapid recovery of the German Army in the wake of recent Allied advances. A coordinated Allied campaign proved difficult to achieve. General Omar N. Bradley s U.S. 12th Army Group was licking its wounds after the almost disastrous Ardennes counteroffensive, and it was clear to Field Marshal Bernard L. Montgomery, commander of the British 21st Army Group, that the Americans would not be ready to undertake a major offensive for some time. Despite its vast reserve of manpower, unlike the critically depleted British Army, the U.S. Army had become seriously deficient of infantry replacements. Monty made the first move. Meanwhile, on January 12, the Soviet Army launched a long awaited, massive offensive from Warsaw toward the River Oder and Berlin. This was just in time, thought Montgomery and General Dwight D. Ike Eisenhower, the Allied supreme commander. By the end of the month, the Russians were only 50 miles from the German capital. While the Americans were recovering, it devolved on the 21st Army Group, still supported by Lt. Gen. William H. Texas Bill Simpson s U.S. Ninth Army, to take over the battle as soon as winter loosened its grip. Monty and Ike agreed that the next stage should be to break through the Germans formidable Siegfried Line and close up to the left bank of the Rhine. The main objective was the historic city of Wesel, on the opposite side of the great river in flat country just north of the Ruhr Valley. It was here that Montgomery had originally sought to seize a bridgehead in September 1944, and common sense still favored it. Accordingly, two well knit, almost copybook offensives were planned for February 8, 1945: Operation Veritable on the left flank and Operation Grenade on the right, adjacent to the boundary with Bradley s 12th Army Group. Monty announced that the 21st Army Group s task was to destroy all enemy in the area west of the Rhine from the present forward positions south of Nijmegen (Holland) as far south as the general line Julich Dusseldorf, as a preliminary to crossing the Rhine and engaging the enemy in mobile war to the north of the Ruhr. Three armies would be involved in the offensives: the Canadian First, the British Second, and the U.S. Ninth. Commanding the Canadian force was the distinguished, 57 year old General Henry D.G. Harry Crerar, a World War I artillery veteran and a man of cool judgment and cold nerves. The ration strength of his First Army exceeded 470,000 men, and no Canadian had ever led such a large force. The British Second Army was led by the skilled, unassuming Lt. Gen. Sir Miles Bimbo Dempsey, a 48 year old World War I veteran of the Western Front and Iraq who later acquitted himself well in the Dunkirk evacuation, the Western Desert, Sicily, Italy, and Normandy. Tall, bald, Texas born General Simpson, commanding 300,000 men of the U.S. Ninth Army, had served in the Philippine Insurrection, the 1916 Mexico punitive expedition, and on the Western Front in 1918. Eisenhower said of the 56 year old officer, If Simpson ever made a mistake as an Army commander, it never came to my attention. With 11 divisions and nine independent brigades, the Canadian Army would clear the way in February 1945 up to the town of Xanten; the Ninth Army, with 10 divisions in three corps, would cross the Roer River and move northward to Dusseldorf (Operation Grenade), and the four divisions of the Second Army would attack in the center. Although he was in customary high spirits about the operation, Montgomery knew that it would be no cakewalk. I visited the Veritable area today, he warned Field Marshal Sir Alan Brooke, chief of the Imperial General Staff, on February 6. The ground is very wet, and roads and tracks are breaking up, and these factors are likely to make progress somewhat slow after the operation is launched. Besides expected opposition from at least 10 well entrenched Wehrmacht divisions, the Allied troops would have to face minefields, flooded rivers and terrain, a lack of roads, appalling weather, and tough going in the gloomy, tangled Reichswald and Hochwald forests. Montgomery won final approval for the great dual assault on the Rhine on February 1, and the preparations were hastily finalized under tight security. Strict blackout regulations were enforced, and a cover story was concocted to convince the enemy that the offensive would be in a northerly direction to liberate Holland, rather than an eastern thrust into Germany. Daytime gatherings of troops were forbidden unless under cover; large concentrations of vehicles, weapons, and ammunition were camouflaged or concealed in farmyards, barns, and haystacks, and rubber dummies of tanks and artillery pieces were positioned along an imaginary battle line where they might attract the attention of enemy patrols. Logistical feats were accomplished speedily as thousands of men, vehicles, and equipment were transported to the forward assembly lines. The British and Canadian soldiers worked around the clock. Sappers built and improved 100 miles of road using 20,000 tons of stones, 20,000 logs, and 30,000 pickets, and 446 freight trains hauled 250,000 tons of equipment and supplies to the railheads. It was estimated that the ammunition alone all types, stacked side by side and five feet high would line the road for 30 miles. Engineers constructed five bridges across the River Maas, using 1,880 tons of equipment. The biggest was a 1,280 foot long British designed Bailey bridge. Outside Nijmegen, an airfield was laid in five days for British and Canadian rocket firing Hawker Typhoons, which would support the offensive. Meanwhile, a formidable array of armor and specialized vehicles was assembled. It included Churchill, Cromwell, Centaur, Comet, Valentine, and Sherman heavy and medium tanks; Bren gun carriers, jeeps, half tracks, and armored cars; amphibious Weasel, Buffalo, and DUKW cargo and personnel carriers; and 11 regiments of Hobart s Funnies, Churchills and Shermans fitted with antimine flails, flamethrowers, and bridging equipment. Invented by Maj. Gen. Sir Percy Hobart, these had proved invaluable in the Normandy invasion and the clearing of the flooded Scheldt Estuary by Crerar s army. Under the command of the Canadian First Army, the Veritable offensive was to be spearheaded by the seasoned British XXX Corps led by 49 year old Lt. Gen. Sir Brian G. Horrocks. He returned from leave in England to plunge into preparations for the largest operation he had ever undertaken. A much wounded veteran of Ypres, Siberia, El Alamein, Tunisia, Normandy, and Belgium, the tall, lithe Horrocks nicknamed Jorrocks by his mentor, Montgomery was a charismatic officer who led from the front and was regarded as one of the finest corps commanders of the war. Horrocks regarded Monty s overall plan for the offensive as simplicity itself. The XXX Corps was to attack in a southerly direction from the Nijmegen area with its right on the River Maas and its left on the Rhine. Forty eight hours later, said Horrocks, our old friends, General Simpson s U.S. Ninth Army, were to cross the River Roer and advance north to meet us. The German forces would thus be caught in a vise and be faced with the alternatives, either to fight it out west of the Rhine or to withdraw over the Rhine and then be prepared to launch counterattacks when we ourselves subsequently attempted to cross . In theory, this looked like a comparatively simple operation, but all battles have their problems, and in this case the initial assault would have to smash through a bottleneck well suited to defense and consisting in part of the famous Siegfried Line. Horrocks decided to use the maximum force possible and open Operation Veritable with five divisions, from right to left, in line: the 51st Highland, 53rd Welsh, 15th Scottish, and the 2nd and 3rd Canadian, followed by the 43rd Wessex and Maj. Gen. Sir Alan Adair s proud Guards Armored Division. On the morning of February 4, Horrocks briefed his commanders in the packed cinema in the southern Dutch town of Tilburg. Clad in brown corduroy trousers and a battlefield jacket, the unpretentious general drew a warm response as he crisply outlined the offensive, radiated confidence, and moved from group to group with a friendly and humorous word. Like Montgomery, he made a practice of keeping all ranks informed about operations. 1 2 3 4 Next View the discussion thread. copy; Copyright 2019 Center for the National Interest All Rights Reserved
FB Twitter ellipsis More Pinterest Mail Email Print iphone Send Text Message A sweet moment of former President Barack Obama #xA0;holding the hand of his daughter Sasha and waving at onlookers has been memorialized in a sculpture as part of Rapid City, South Dakota #x2019;s long running #x201C;City of Presidents #x201D; project.Since 2000, the western South Dakota city has been populating its streets and sidewalks with life size bronze statues of the nation #x2019;s past commanders in chief -- an art instillation meant to honor the legacy of the American presidency.
After Russian and American warships nearly collided in the East China Sea on Friday, both countries were quick to accuse the other of "dangerous and unprofessional" behavior, according to a June 7 report by Reuters. One detail that hasn't come up, but totally should, is why a bunch of Russian sailors were chilling on the deck of the Russian destroyer Admiral Vinogradov when the vessel came within 50 to 165 feet of the USS Chancellorsville, a Navy guided missile cruiser. (The exact distance between the two vessels is unclear, as both the U.S. and Russian navies are citing different figures.) The sun bathing sailors were first spotted by CNN correspondent Barbara Starr on Twitter. And others quickly joined in to speculate on why sailors were kicking back in lawn chairs and catching some rays, instead of, you know, manning their posts or swabbing the poop deck, or whatever the Russian naval equivalent is. According to Reuters, Russia's Pacific fleet claims that the Chancellorsville came within 165 feet of the Russian Udaloy class destroyer, and that the Russian vessel was forced to take measures to avoid a collision. "A protest over the international radio frequency was made to the commanders of the American ship who were warned about the unacceptable nature of such actions," reads a statement from Russia's Pacific fleet, provided to Reuters. Intense video reveals how close a Russian warship came to colliding with a US cruiser in the East China Sea The Russian Navy's claim was rejected by the U.S. Navy which said the Russian destroyer made an unsafe maneuver against USS Chancellorsville," U.S. Seventh Fleet spokesman Commander Clayton Doss told Reuters. "This unsafe action forced Chancellorsville to execute all engines back full and to maneuver to avoid collision." Doss told Reuters that the Russian military's claim that the U.S. was at fault for the near collision amounted to "propaganda," and that the two vessels came within 50 to 100 feet of one another, not the 165 feet claimed by the Russian Navy. Regardless of who was at fault, or just how close disaster came, one thing is certain: Nothing will ruin a relaxing morning out in the sun like nearly crashing into another warship. This article originally appeared at Task amp; Purpose. Follow Task amp; Purpose on Twitter. This article first appeared in 2019. More Articles from Task amp; Purpose: 7 Veteran Friendly Manufacturers That Are Hiring The 6 Types Of Contractors You Encounter Overseas Here s How Marines Fared On The New Physical Fitness Test Image: Flickr. View the discussion thread. copy; Copyright 2019 Center for the National Interest All Rights Reserved
ISIS has been driven back in recent months with the jihadis confined to an ever shrinking enclave on the eastern bank of the Euphrates River. SDF commanders have stepped up attacks over the past two days and taken control of the area between the ISIS territory enclave and the Iraqi border cutting off their escape route. Mustafa Bali, SDF media office head, said: "They are living the final moments and realise that this battle is the battle to eliminate them. ”
The outcome of the bureaucratic reshuffling could have major implications for Los Angeles. More than 6,000 personnel are based at the Air Force;s Space and Missile Systems Center in El Segundo, which does most of the service;s space planning and procurement.Trump 's idea for a futuristic space service has raised deep concerns among some military officials and senior Pentagon commanders, especially in the Air Force. They fear losing responsibility for space and the nearly $8.5 billion of its budget that now goes for building and launching satellites, along with other space systems.
Srinagar: In a bid to prevent weapon snatching, the police have banned use of smartphones by its sentries during duty time, an order issued by Additional Director General of Police Armed J amp;K, Srinagar, AK Choudhary said. The sentries have also been asked to wear BP jackets and chain their weapons with belts. ;It has been observed that recent weapon snatching incidents have occurred due to the reason that sentries on duty remain engaged with their smartphones for most of the time thereby compromising with their legitimate duty. This tendency has considerably increased and resulted in weapon snatching killing of Police cops in the state, particularly in the Valley,; the order said. The order further said that the tendency not only lowered the image of Police organization but also compromises with personal security of the individual. This speaks volumes about lack of supervision and sensitization of lower subordinates with inputs and overall security situation in and around a particular area. ;No sentry shall carry with him any smartphone during duty hours under any circumstances. All sentries, particularly on guard duty, shall wear BP gear and chain their weapons with their belts properly. All the guards shall introduce improvised alarm system. All the guard personnel shall remain available round the clock in their respective guard rooms in a state of alertness and in proper uniform during day time,; the order said. The order further reads that unit duty officers shall take hourly situation report from all company commanders. All guard personnel shall ensure compliance of the standing drill in letter and spirit. They shall have liaised with nearest district Police installations security force;s (SFs) pickets. ;All the commandants of JKAP IR Battalions and supervisory officers concerned are enjoined upon to ensure implementation of the directions in Letter and spirit. They shall ensure that all the officers officials of their respective units are briefed adequately in this regard for better results on the ground. In case of any delinquency, the concerned commandants and other supervisory officers shall also be held responsible,; the order added. (GNS)
WASHINGTON Five senior leaders of the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) were captured in a joint operation involving U.S. and Iraqi forces. It is the latest defeat for the extremist group, which has lost nearly all the territory it once held in Iraq and Syria.The ISIS commanders' confessions were broadcast on Iraqi television this morning.
The original remarks during a TV debate Sunday after Western missile strikes on Syria hinted at a major policy shift by Trump and brought a sharp response from the White House less than a week before Macron is scheduled to visit Washington.It left Macron scrambling to clarify his statement and fall closer in line with Trump s outlook that the Islamic State remains the main battle for Western military forces in Syria. Last month, Trump announced that he planned to withdraw U.S. troops from Syria very soon, but appeared to take a softer line after commanders and others questioned that decision.
The New York Times reported that i n recent weeks, Kurdish officials have pulled thousands of fighters and commanders from that battle against ISIS and rushed them to Afrin, in Syria s northwest, where other Kurdish militia are facing sharp attacks from Turkish troops. Kurdish forces have been crucial to the U.S. fight against ISIS in both Syria and Iraq. The Times article called the Kurds in Syria the U.S. military campaign s most effective fighting partner. Last year, the State Department approved a deal to send $300 million in weapons to Kurdish Peshmerga fighters in Iraq, and U.S. forces had trained more than 22,000 Kurdish fighters as of August, according to the Chicago Tribune.
Now, those first details are just a few days away from being available to commanders willing to courageous the confines of an open beta.
Working from notes from George Lucas, and concept art from artist Ralph McQuarrie, Mollo managed to create some of the most iconic costumes in all of Western movie history, on a relatively shoestring budget. As you see, the costumes from Star Wars are really not so much costumes as a bit of plumbing and general automobile engineering, he joked during his Oscars acceptance speech, which he gave flanked by models in the outfits worn by Darth Vader, the Imperial Stormtroopers, and Princess Leia. Mollo drew from his experience as a military historian for many of the film s designs; Lucas asked him to give the film s villains a fascist look, and so he dug into the styles of Nazi commanders and German WWI trench armor to create the Vader suit and helmet, solidifying the character as one of the most enduring cinematic villains of all time.
Abdul Ghani Musamim, spokesman for the provincial governor, said the strike took place on Thursday afternoon in the Chawkay district.He said it targeted a meeting of ISIS commanders planning for a terrorist attack.
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The Father of All Bombs was filmed being dropped near the embattled Syrian city of Deir ez Zor on Thursday
Russian military are believed to have dropped the 'father of all bombs' on top ISIS commanders.Reports claim Vladimir Putin's armed forces have dropped the biggest ever non nuclear bomb on ISIS leaders in Deir ez Zor in Syria.
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Mosul Erbil, Iraq: ISIS militants vowed to ;fight to the death; in Mosul on Saturday as Iraqi military commanders said they would take full control of the city from the insurgents at any moment.Dozens of Iraqi soldiers celebrated amid the rubble on the banks of the Tigris river without waiting for a formal victory declaration, some dancing to music blaring out from a truck and firing machine guns into the air, a Reuters correspondent said.