Key point: A true turning point in the war against the Nazis. January 1945 with World War II in its sixth year found the Allied armies going on the offensive after the Battle of the Bulge, but they were still west of the Rhine and six weeks behind schedule in their advance toward Germany. Closing to the Rhine was not easy. Although U.S. and French units of Lt. Gen. Jacob L. Devers Sixth Army Group had reached the western bank around Strasbourg in late 1944, the river proved too difficult to cross. Even if an assault could have been mounted, the Allied forces would have been too far away from the heart of Germany to pose any meaningful threat. The key to eventual victory lay in the central and northern Rhineland, but three factors delayed an advance: the failure of Operation Market Garden, the British American airborne invasion of Holland, the onset of an extremely wet autumn and harsh winter, and the unexpectedly rapid recovery of the German Army in the wake of recent Allied advances. A coordinated Allied campaign proved difficult to achieve. General Omar N. Bradley s U.S. 12th Army Group was licking its wounds after the almost disastrous Ardennes counteroffensive, and it was clear to Field Marshal Bernard L. Montgomery, commander of the British 21st Army Group, that the Americans would not be ready to undertake a major offensive for some time. Despite its vast reserve of manpower, unlike the critically depleted British Army, the U.S. Army had become seriously deficient of infantry replacements. Monty made the first move. Meanwhile, on January 12, the Soviet Army launched a long awaited, massive offensive from Warsaw toward the River Oder and Berlin. This was just in time, thought Montgomery and General Dwight D. Ike Eisenhower, the Allied supreme commander. By the end of the month, the Russians were only 50 miles from the German capital. While the Americans were recovering, it devolved on the 21st Army Group, still supported by Lt. Gen. William H. Texas Bill Simpson s U.S. Ninth Army, to take over the battle as soon as winter loosened its grip. Monty and Ike agreed that the next stage should be to break through the Germans formidable Siegfried Line and close up to the left bank of the Rhine. The main objective was the historic city of Wesel, on the opposite side of the great river in flat country just north of the Ruhr Valley. It was here that Montgomery had originally sought to seize a bridgehead in September 1944, and common sense still favored it. Accordingly, two well knit, almost copybook offensives were planned for February 8, 1945: Operation Veritable on the left flank and Operation Grenade on the right, adjacent to the boundary with Bradley s 12th Army Group. Monty announced that the 21st Army Group s task was to destroy all enemy in the area west of the Rhine from the present forward positions south of Nijmegen (Holland) as far south as the general line Julich Dusseldorf, as a preliminary to crossing the Rhine and engaging the enemy in mobile war to the north of the Ruhr. Three armies would be involved in the offensives: the Canadian First, the British Second, and the U.S. Ninth. Commanding the Canadian force was the distinguished, 57 year old General Henry D.G. Harry Crerar, a World War I artillery veteran and a man of cool judgment and cold nerves. The ration strength of his First Army exceeded 470,000 men, and no Canadian had ever led such a large force. The British Second Army was led by the skilled, unassuming Lt. Gen. Sir Miles Bimbo Dempsey, a 48 year old World War I veteran of the Western Front and Iraq who later acquitted himself well in the Dunkirk evacuation, the Western Desert, Sicily, Italy, and Normandy. Tall, bald, Texas born General Simpson, commanding 300,000 men of the U.S. Ninth Army, had served in the Philippine Insurrection, the 1916 Mexico punitive expedition, and on the Western Front in 1918. Eisenhower said of the 56 year old officer, If Simpson ever made a mistake as an Army commander, it never came to my attention. With 11 divisions and nine independent brigades, the Canadian Army would clear the way in February 1945 up to the town of Xanten; the Ninth Army, with 10 divisions in three corps, would cross the Roer River and move northward to Dusseldorf (Operation Grenade), and the four divisions of the Second Army would attack in the center. Although he was in customary high spirits about the operation, Montgomery knew that it would be no cakewalk. I visited the Veritable area today, he warned Field Marshal Sir Alan Brooke, chief of the Imperial General Staff, on February 6. The ground is very wet, and roads and tracks are breaking up, and these factors are likely to make progress somewhat slow after the operation is launched. Besides expected opposition from at least 10 well entrenched Wehrmacht divisions, the Allied troops would have to face minefields, flooded rivers and terrain, a lack of roads, appalling weather, and tough going in the gloomy, tangled Reichswald and Hochwald forests. Montgomery won final approval for the great dual assault on the Rhine on February 1, and the preparations were hastily finalized under tight security. Strict blackout regulations were enforced, and a cover story was concocted to convince the enemy that the offensive would be in a northerly direction to liberate Holland, rather than an eastern thrust into Germany. Daytime gatherings of troops were forbidden unless under cover; large concentrations of vehicles, weapons, and ammunition were camouflaged or concealed in farmyards, barns, and haystacks, and rubber dummies of tanks and artillery pieces were positioned along an imaginary battle line where they might attract the attention of enemy patrols. Logistical feats were accomplished speedily as thousands of men, vehicles, and equipment were transported to the forward assembly lines. The British and Canadian soldiers worked around the clock. Sappers built and improved 100 miles of road using 20,000 tons of stones, 20,000 logs, and 30,000 pickets, and 446 freight trains hauled 250,000 tons of equipment and supplies to the railheads. It was estimated that the ammunition alone all types, stacked side by side and five feet high would line the road for 30 miles. Engineers constructed five bridges across the River Maas, using 1,880 tons of equipment. The biggest was a 1,280 foot long British designed Bailey bridge. Outside Nijmegen, an airfield was laid in five days for British and Canadian rocket firing Hawker Typhoons, which would support the offensive. Meanwhile, a formidable array of armor and specialized vehicles was assembled. It included Churchill, Cromwell, Centaur, Comet, Valentine, and Sherman heavy and medium tanks; Bren gun carriers, jeeps, half tracks, and armored cars; amphibious Weasel, Buffalo, and DUKW cargo and personnel carriers; and 11 regiments of Hobart s Funnies, Churchills and Shermans fitted with antimine flails, flamethrowers, and bridging equipment. Invented by Maj. Gen. Sir Percy Hobart, these had proved invaluable in the Normandy invasion and the clearing of the flooded Scheldt Estuary by Crerar s army. Under the command of the Canadian First Army, the Veritable offensive was to be spearheaded by the seasoned British XXX Corps led by 49 year old Lt. Gen. Sir Brian G. Horrocks. He returned from leave in England to plunge into preparations for the largest operation he had ever undertaken. A much wounded veteran of Ypres, Siberia, El Alamein, Tunisia, Normandy, and Belgium, the tall, lithe Horrocks nicknamed Jorrocks by his mentor, Montgomery was a charismatic officer who led from the front and was regarded as one of the finest corps commanders of the war. Horrocks regarded Monty s overall plan for the offensive as simplicity itself. The XXX Corps was to attack in a southerly direction from the Nijmegen area with its right on the River Maas and its left on the Rhine. Forty eight hours later, said Horrocks, our old friends, General Simpson s U.S. Ninth Army, were to cross the River Roer and advance north to meet us. The German forces would thus be caught in a vise and be faced with the alternatives, either to fight it out west of the Rhine or to withdraw over the Rhine and then be prepared to launch counterattacks when we ourselves subsequently attempted to cross . In theory, this looked like a comparatively simple operation, but all battles have their problems, and in this case the initial assault would have to smash through a bottleneck well suited to defense and consisting in part of the famous Siegfried Line. Horrocks decided to use the maximum force possible and open Operation Veritable with five divisions, from right to left, in line: the 51st Highland, 53rd Welsh, 15th Scottish, and the 2nd and 3rd Canadian, followed by the 43rd Wessex and Maj. Gen. Sir Alan Adair s proud Guards Armored Division. On the morning of February 4, Horrocks briefed his commanders in the packed cinema in the southern Dutch town of Tilburg. Clad in brown corduroy trousers and a battlefield jacket, the unpretentious general drew a warm response as he crisply outlined the offensive, radiated confidence, and moved from group to group with a friendly and humorous word. Like Montgomery, he made a practice of keeping all ranks informed about operations. 1 2 3 4 Next View the discussion thread. copy; Copyright 2019 Center for the National Interest All Rights Reserved
Delhi Chief Minister Arvind Kejriwal on Friday said the AAP will win all the 70 seats in the Assembly election next year as he lauded the contribution of his party workers on his birthday.The AAP national convenor addressed his party workers who came to greet him on his 51st birthday.
New Delhi: Prime Minister Narendra Modi is addressing the 51st and the last edition of his monthly radio program #8216;Mann Ki Baat;, today at All India Radio .PM Modi has been utilizing this platform to address several key issues,like education of the girl child, tackling exam stress, curbing pollution, concerns to farmers, poverty and drug menace.
Earning line honours among the 169 boats racing in the 51st Newport Bermuda Race, the big gray boat;s elapsed time over the 635 mile course was 50 hours, 31 minutes, 51 seconds.George David 's Rambler 88 approaches the finish in Bermuda late Sunday afternoon with inner and outer staysails set. Credit: "Adventures of a Sailor Girl "
The 120 strong fleet of boats will today set off on the biennial drag race from Newport to Bermuda. Light winds and strong Gulf Stream affects are the main topics of pre race conversation as a slow route lies ahead for all competitors.Among the international field of sailors are at least five Irish, all of whom are looking to continue previous success on the east coast of America.
The mystic lady, Baba Vanga, whose predictions turned into reality and shocked the world; had made two astonishing predictions for the upcoming year 2018 which can cause a whole difference in term of science and economy. She predicted that a new form of energy would be discovered on Venus and China will take over from the US and will become the world s next superpower.The Bulgarian blind woman successfully had predicted some of the terrible incidents such as 9 11, Brexit tragedy, the origin of ISIS and Indian Ocean tsunami or Boxing day tsunami of 2004. She also named as Nostradamus from the Balkans. Before the death, she dropped prophecies up to the 51st Century. Moreover, she predicted that the world would end.
Keith Urban is in the running for four trophies, including Entertainer of the Year, at the 51st annual Country Music Association Awards tonight (Nov. 8), but win or lose his most important contribution to the event might well be the song he plans to debut.Capitol Nashville released a new single, Female, to radio stations at 6 a.m. ET, hours before the performance on ABC. Roughly three weeks old, the song was inspired in part by the Harvey Weinstein scandal in Hollywood s film industry. Urban recorded it on Halloween, and the quick release ensures that the song gets attention while the nation is still discussing the predatory behavior and abuse of power at the heart of that ongoing story.
Salman was present at the entrance welcoming and accepting hugs and birthday wishes from all the guests. At 51, Salman not only looked fitter but also happier and relaxed. The glow on his face was perhaps from the immense sense of security that he has. He;s not only one of the most successful actors in the country, but also a human being with an extremely large and giving heart. Whether it is doing films and cameos for his friends or supporting other actors and his peers during their film release, Salman is the perfect ambassador for his charitable trust Being Human.Last night 's birthday party saw Bipasha Basu along with husband Karan Singh Grover, Sushant Singh Rajput, Randeep Hooda, Esha Gupta and his producer director friends including Ramesh Taurani, Sajid Nadiadwala, Boney Kapoor, Anees Bazmee. There was also Mouni Roy who looked like she had arrived from her show set. The glamour squad was lead by Waluscha De Sousa who looked smoking hot in a black ensemble. Daisy Shah was spotted grooving and dancing to the latest chartbusters.
Salman Khan turned 51 and after a huge party last night, he just released the much awaited Being In Touch mobile app. While going , we came across some really interesting things including his diet, his workout regime and much more. In todayâ€™s day and age, people want to be really fit and have a great body. And who better to look up to than Bhai. But what is his secret? Well, the actor follows a special diet but you will be stunned to know that it is really simple. In fact, he loves home cooked meals.
# The GRANDEST party everSalman Khan 's party might be at his usual venue his Panvel farmhouse, but this year it is going to be the biggest affair Bollywood has ever witnessed. Our source EXCLUSIVELY told us that a rather grand birthday bash is being planned with some of the biggest celebrities on the guest list. In fact, we hear that celebs like Shah Rukh Khan, Priyanka Chopra and a few others have been personally invited by Salman for the party. Imagine Shah Rukh, Salman and Priyanka posing together? Salman s ex Katrina Kaif is close to Salman and his family too, so she might make an entry late at night too ... ALSO READ EXCLUSIVE: Shah Rukh Khan to attend good friend Salman Khan s birthday party?
Add to this, our source also tells us how unlike every year which would mandatorily see mini reunions between Salman 's Bigg Boss contestants, this year there 'll be no random guests making it to the party. It 'll be just a few selected number of guests from Bollywood, television and of course, his Khan parivaar in company. Sounds perfect, isn 't it? Trust me, we 're literally failing to contain our excitement to check out the pictures from this big fat birthday bash. I mean, just imagine Shah Rukh, Salman and Priyanka posing together? Or what if we have more B townies walking in say for instance Salman 's ex Katrina Kaif? Like you never know Considering Katrina is so close to Salman and his family, she might as well be very much on this starry guest list. Also read: We know what is Iulia Vantur s BIG SURPRISE for Salman Khan on his 51st birthday
Jeje Lalpekhlua and Davide Succi scored in either half as defending champions Chennaiyin FC snapped their five match winless streak after beating FC Pune City 2 0 in the Indian Super League on Tuesday.A headed goal by Jeje in the 44th minute and another strike from Succi in the 51st minute were enough for Chennaiyin to collect three points from their first win after beating NorthEast United in Guwahati on October 20.
For Mumbai City FC, Hungarian midfielder Krisztian Vadocz found the net twice, in the 33rd and 38th minutes, and the consistent Sony Norde added to the tally by finding the back of the net in the 69th minute at the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium.Richard Gadze opened the account for the hosts when he found the target in the 51st minute and then substitute Badara Badji and Marcelinho scored in the 76th and 82nd minutes respectively.
A member of the 51st Front of the Revolutionary Armed Forces John Vizcaino Reuters Ads are being blocked For us to continue writing great stories, we need to display ads.
CEBU CITY The drizzle on Tuesday didn;t stop the more than 800 inmates of the Cebu provincial jail from giving a heartfelt performance before the Burmese cardinal sent by Pope Francis to represent him at the 51st International Eucharistic Congress (IEC).Cardinal Charles Maung Bo, archbishop of Rangoon, Burma, was impressed and described their dance as a love letter sent directly to our hearts.
You are using an old version of your browser. We recommend that you upgrade your browser for a better experience of this website.SINGAPORE: Cambodia's Minister of Environment Say Samal will visit Singapore as the 51st Lee Kuan Yew Exchange Fellow from Sunday (Jan 24) to Saturday, said the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA).